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Human Physiology, 7/e
Stuart I Fox, Pierce College

The Digestive System

Multiple Choice Quiz

Please answer all questions



1

The polymers in food are broken down into their constituent monomers by ____ reactions in the digestive tract. (p. 562)
A)polymerization
B)absorption
C)condensation
D)hydrolysis
2

The digestive system is specialized to perform all of the following functions except (p. 563)
A)deglutition
B)peristalsis
C)metabolism
D)defecation
3

Which of the following locations does not belong with the others? (p. 563)
A)buccal cavity
B)stomach
C)salivary glands
D)small intestine
4

Which of the following is not considered to be an accessory organ of the digestive system?(p. 563)
A)teeth
B)rectum
C)pancreas
D)gallbladder
5

Which of the following is a subdivision and does not belong with the other layers of the gastrointestinal wall? (p. 564)
A)mucosa
B)lamina propria
C)submucosa
D)serosa
6

Inner circular and outer longitudinal layers are characteristic of the ____ layer of the digestive tract. (p. 564)
A)lamina propria
B)muscularis mucosa
C)submucosa
D)muscularis externa
7

The outermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract is the (p. 565)
A)muscularis mucosa
B)muscularis externa
C)serosa
D)mucosa
8

Most of the digestive system receives its parasympathetic innervation from the (p. 565)
A)vagus nerve
B)thoracic spinal nerves
C)lumbar spinal nerves
D)sacral spinal nerves
9

Swallowed food first enters the ____ of the stomach. (p. 567)
A)fundus
B)corpus (body)
C)cardiac region
D)antrum
10

To enter the small intestine, partially digested food must pass through the (p. 567)
A)gastroesophageal sphincter
B)pyloric sphincter
C)ileocecal valve
D)sphincter of Oddi
11

Mucus is secreted throughout much of the alimentary canal by (p. 568)
A)G cells
B)enterochromaffin-like cells
C)parietal cells
D)goblet cells
12

Which of the following cell types does not belong with the others? (p. 568)
A)alpha cells
B)G cells
C)enterochromaffin-like cells
D)parietal cells
13

Pepsinogen is produced in the stomach by (p. 568)
A)chief cells
B)parietal cells
C)enterochromaffin-like cells
D)goblet cells
14

The hydrochloric acid secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach serves all of the following purposes, except (p. 569)
A)the low pH produced by HCl makes pepsin more active
B)the acid helps convert pepsinogen into pepsin
C)it denatures dietary proteins and makes them more digestible
D)it hydrolyzes the peptide bonds between the amino acids of dietary proteins
15

The most important function of the stomach, and perhaps the only function that appears to be essential for life is the (p. 568)
A)digestion of carbohydrates
B)digestion of proteins
C)absorption of monosaccharides
D)secretion of intrinsic factor
16

Contributing factors in acute gastritis include all of the following except (p. 571)
A)regurgitation of bile salts from the duodenum into the stomach
B)deficiency of bicarbonate
C)hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid
D)histamine secretion
17

The absorptive surface area of the small intestine is increased by all of the following except (p. 571)
A)villi
B)microvilli
C)crypts of Lieberkühn
D)plicae circulares
18

All of the following substances except ____ stimulate the secretion of gastric acid. (p. 587)
A)epinephrine
B)gastrin
C)histamine
D)acetylcholine
19

The longest part of the small intestine is the (p. 571)
A)duodenum
B)jejunum
C)ileum
D)cecum
20

More ____ is absorbed by the duodenum and the jejunum than by the ileum. (p. 571)
A)vitamin B12
B)water
C)carbohydrate
D)bile salt
21

The lacteals of the small intestine are found in the (p. 571)
A)Crypts of Lieberkühn
B)central core of each villus
C)submucosa
D)each microvillus
22

The lacteals of the small intestine absorb (p. 573)
A)monosaccharides
B)amino acids
C)electrolytes
D)lipids
23

The term brush border refers to the ____ of the alimentary canal. (p. 573)
A)plicae circulares
B)rugae
C)microvilli
D)villi
24

Which of the following is a brush border enzyme? (p. 573)
A)pepsin
B)lactase
C)trypsin
D)amylase
25

A person typically drinks about 1,500 ml of water each day and takes in about 700 ml of water each day as moisture in food. The total amount of water received by the small intestine each day is, approximately (p. 577)
A)700 ml
B)1,500 ml
C)2,200 ml
D)8,000 ml
26

Lactose, salt, or other solutes that increase the osmolarity of the contents of the colon tend to cause (p. 577)
A)diverticulitis
B)acute gastritis
C)diarrhea
D)ulcerative colitis
27

The ____ prevent(s) feces from entering the anal canal when it is an inopportune time to defecate. (p. 577)
A)haustra
B)anal sphincters
C)ileocecal valve
D)diverticula
28

The bile contains all of the following components except (p. 580)
A)lecithin
B)albumin
C)cholesterol
D)urobilinogen
29

The liver performs all of the following functions except the (p. 581)
A)synthesis of digestive enzymes
B)conversion of glucose to fat
C)phagocytosis of contaminating particles in the blood
D)storage and release of glucose
30

The liver synthesizes all of the following except (p. 583)
A)plasma albumin
B)fibrinogen
C)plasma globulins
D)immunoglobulins
31

Urine and feces get their characteristic colors from which of the following pigments? (p. 581)
A)urobilinogen
B)free bilirubin
C)conjugated bilirubin
D)bile salts
32

Cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid are the main ____ in humans. (p. 581)
A)bile salts
B)bile pigments
C)bile globulins
D)conjugated bilirubin
33

A high rate of red blood cell destruction, with elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood, causes (p. 581)
A)diverticulitis
B)gallstones
C)jaundice
D)lithotripsy
34

The liver detoxifies ammonia by converting it to (p. 582)
A)bilirubin
B)urea
C)uric acid
D)nothing, since ammonia is processed by the kidneys and not the liver
35

The primary effect and purpose of hydroxylating steroid hormones in the liver is to (p. 583)
A)raise their pH and prevent acidosis
B)activate them so they can perform their hormonal functions
C)make them less biologically active, more water soluble, and more easily excreted.
D)incorporate them into micelles so they can be secreted into the bile.
36

The liver is able to make glucose from non-carbohydrates such as amino acids and fatty acids when the body's need for glucose is not met from dietary intake or glycogen reserves. This process is called (p. 583)
A)glycogenesis
B)glycogenolysis
C)lipogenesis
D)gluconeogenesis
37

Pancreatic juice does not include the following substance. (p. 585)
A)insulin
B)trypsin
C)amylase
D)bicarbonate
38

Many of the pancreatic enzymes must be activated by trypsin before they can begin digesting food, but trypsin itself requires the activating effect of (p. 585)
A)chymotrypsin
B)carboxypeptidase
C)phospholipase
D)enterokinase
39

The first hormone ever discovered was (p. 586)
A)insulin
B)secretin
C)gastrin
D)cholecystokinin
40

The smell, taste, or just the thought of food can activate gastric secretion and stomach motility by activating the (p. 587)
A)sympathetic nervous system
B)release of gastrin
C)vagus nerve
D)release of cholecystokinin (CCK)
41

The G cells of the stomach secrete gastrin in response to a couple of stimuli. One stimulus triggering gastrin release is the presence of (p. 588)
A)fatty acids from lipids in the stomach chyme.
B)the hormone somatostatin from the stomach D cells.
C)short polypeptides and free amino acids in the chyme of the stomach.
D)hydrochloric acid mixed with the stomach chyme.
42

Contraction of the gallbladder is stimulated by neural reflex as well as by the action of (p. 587)
A)cholecystokinin (CCK)
B)secretin
C)guanylin
D)somatostatin
43

The digestive enzyme that is most active at a pH of 2, is (p. 592)
A)salivary amylase
B)pancreatic amylase
C)pepsin
D)trypsin
44

More of the total daily calories in the average American diet come from the consumption of ____ than from any of these other components. (p. 592)
A)lipids
B)carbohydrates
C)nucleic acids
D)proteins
45

Three of the following are endopeptidases, with ____ as the only exopeptidase. (p. 593)
A)trypsin
B)elastase
C)chymotrypsin
D)carboxypeptidase
46

Each villus of the small intestine contains a lymphatic vessel called a lacteal which is specialized for the absorption of digested (p. 594)
A)milk
B)carbohydrate molecules
C)protein molecules
D)lipid molecules
47

The role of the enzyme, lipoprotein lipase is to (p. 594)
A)emulsify dietary lipids so they can be digested more efficiently.
B)remove triglycerides from chylomicrons in the blood.
C)form micelles in the small intestine.
D)digest lipids so they can be absorbed by the intestinal cells.