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1 What is EMDR?

1.1 What is the relationship between “bystander intervention” and “bystander apathy”?

1.2 What key scientific attitudes did Darley and Latané display?

2. How does Darley and Latané’s research illustrate the basic steps of the scientific process?

3. What is a hypothesis?

4. What is a theory? How does it differ from a hypothesis?

5. Explain the major drawback of hindsight understanding.

6. What approach to understanding do scientists prefer? Why?

7. Describe the characteristics of a good theory.

8. Why are operational definitions important?

9. Describe the major ways psychologists measure behaviour, and the limitations of each.

10. What is unobtrusive measurement?

11. What is a case study? Identify its advantages and drawbacks.

12. What are the major limitations of case studies?

13. What is naturalistic observation, and what is its major advantage?

14. What problems can occur when conducting naturalistic observations?

15. Explain what random sampling is and why survey researchers use it.

16. What are some advantages and disadvantages of survey research?

17. Explain the main goal of correlational research, and how this is achieved.

18. Why are we unable to draw causal conclusions from correlational findings?

19. How do positive and negative correlations differ?

20. How is a correlation coefficient interpreted?

21. Explain how correlational research can be used to predict behaviour.

22. Describe the logic of experimentation.

23. What are independent and dependent variables? How are they related?

24. Why are control groups important?

25. Why do researchers randomly assign participants to the conditions in an experiment?

26. Identify an alternative to using random assignment in experiments.

27. Identify the independent and dependent variables in Dringenberg et al.’s experiment.

28. Why do researchers manipulate two independent variables in the same experiment?

29. What are three differences between the experimental and descriptive/correlational approaches?

30. Explain why confounding decreases the internal validity of experiments.

31. What are demand characteristics? Why do they lower the internal validity of experiments?

32. Explain how the “placebo effect” can cloud the interpretation of research results.

33. Why do experimenter expectancy effects lower the internal validity of experiments?

34. How do researchers minimize experimenter expectancy effects?

35. How does external validity differ from internal validity?

36. Describe the purpose of meta-analysis.

37. Identify the major ethical issues in human research and how participants’ rights are protected.

38. Why does some research involve deception? What ethical principle does deception violate?

39. What are the justifications for, and criticisms of, research in which animals are harmed?

40. As a critical thinker, what questions should you ask when someone makes a claim or assertion?








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