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Anatomy and Physiology, 6/e
Rod Seeley, Idaho State University
Trent Stephens, Idaho State University
Philip Tate, Phoenix College

Functional Organization of the Endocrine System

Chapter Quiz



1

Hormones
A)are chemical signals produced in small amounts.
B)are secreted into ducts.
C)affect all the cells in the body.
D)usually are not transported.
E)all of these
2

Given these characteristics:

1. amplitude-modulated signals
2. all-or-none response
3. usually slower response
4. effects usually more generally distributed

List the characteristics that apply to the endocrine system when compared to the nervous system.
A)2,3
B)1,2,4
C)1,3,4
D)1,2
E)3,4
3

Name the intercellular chemical signal that is released by cells and has a local effect on the same cell type as that from which the chemical signal is released.
A)autocrine chemical signal
B)pheromone
C)paracrine chemical signal
D)hormone
E)neurotransmitter
4

Chemical signals that are secreted into the environment and modify the behavior and physiology of other individuals are called
A)autocrine chemical signals.
B)pheromones.
C)paracrine chemical signals.
D)hormones.
E)neurotransmitters.
5

Norepinephrine and acetylcholine are examples of which of these types of intercellular chemical signals?
A)autocrine chemical signals
B)pheromones
C)paracrine chemical signals
D)hormones
E)neurotransmitters
6

Neurohormones are intercellular chemical signals that are
A)produced by groups of cells and affect neurons.
B)released by cells and affect other cell types locally.
C)produced by neurons and act like hormones.
D)released by neurons and stimulate or inhibit other neurons.
7

__________ are released by cells and affect other cell types locally without being transported in blood.
A)Autocrine chemical signals
B)Pheromones
C)Paracrine chemical signals
D)Hormones
E)Neurotransmitters
8

The lipid hormones are either __________ or derivatives of fatty acids.
A)glycolipids
B)phospholipids
C)steroids
D)triglycerides
E)glycerols
9

Hormones
A)are not secreted at a constant rate.
B)function to regulate the rates of many activities in the body.
C)secretion rate is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.
D)help maintain homeostasis.
E)all of these
10

Hormones can be any of these types of molecules EXCEPT
A)proteins.
B)glycoproteins.
C)polypeptides.
D)glycolipids.
E)steroids.
11

Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and glucocorticoids are all examples of
A)proteins.
B)glycoproteins.
C)polypeptides.
D)amino acid derivatives.
E)steroids.
12

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones are examples of
A)proteins.
B)glycoproteins.
C)polypeptides.
D)amino acid derivatives.
E)steroids.
13

Increased blood glucose causes increased insulin secretion from the pancreas. This is an example of
A)hormonal regulation of hormone secretion.
B)neural regulation of hormone secretion.
C)nonhormonal regulation of hormone secretion.
14

Water-soluble hormones
A)have a long half-life.
B)have a short half-life.
C)bind to intracellular receptors.
D)both a and c
15

Hormones with a short half-life regulate activities that have a __________ onset with a __________ duration.
A)rapid, long
B)rapid, short
C)slow, long
D)slow, short
16

Given these events:

1. acetylcholine is released
2. action potentials travel through parasympathetic neurons
3. insulin is secreted
4. pancreatic cells depolarize

Arrange these events in the correct order after parasympathetic neurons are stimulated.
A)1,2,3,4
B)2,4,3,1
C)2,1,4,3
D)3,2,1,4
E)4,2,3,1
17

TRH stimulates the secretion of TSH, which stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones inhibit TRH and TSH secretion. This is an example of
A)hormonal regulation of hormone secretion.
B)neural regulation of hormone secretion.
C)nonhormonal regulation of hormone secretion.
18

Stimulation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system during exercise results in secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood; when exercise ends, the amount of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood decreases rapidly. This is an example of
A)acute hormone regulation.
B)chronic hormone regulation.
C)cyclic hormone regulation.
19

The monthly change in secretion of reproductive hormones that occurs in women during their reproductive years is an example of
A)acute hormone regulation.
B)chronic hormone regulation.
C)cyclic hormone regulation.
20

Which of these is an example of positive-feedback regulation in the endocrine system?
A)an increase in blood glucose causes an increase in insulin secretion; insulin moves glucose into cells
B)an increase in TSH causes an increase in thyroid hormone secretion; thyroid hormones inhibit TSH secretion
C)before ovulation, an increase in LH causes an increase in estrogen, which causes an increase in LH
D)an increase in TRH causes an increase in TSH secretion; thyroid hormone inhibits TRH secretion
E)an increase in blood calcium causes an increase in calcitonin secretion; calcitonin moves calcium into the blood.
21

Hormones that bind to plasma proteins
A)bind reversibly.
B)establish an equilibrium between free hormones and bound hormones.
C)must be free hormones to diffuse through the capillary walls.
D)usually bind only to specific types of plasma proteins.
E)all of these
22

Water-soluble hormones, such as proteins, glycoproteins, epinephrine and norepinephrine
A)have relatively long half-lives.
B)are degraded rapidly by enzymes.
C)have half-lives that increase and decrease slowly.
D)regulate activities that have a long duration.
E)a, c, and d
23

________ is a process in which hormones are made less active or are eliminated by attaching water-soluble molecules such as sulfate or glucuronic acid groups to them in the liver.
A)Active transport
B)Conjugation
C)Excretion
D)Metabolism
E)Structural protection
24

If there is a decrease in the specific plasma protein to which a hormone binds,
A)more free hormone occurs.
B)less hormone binds to target cells.
C)blood levels of the hormone increase.
D)all of these
25

Down-regulation occurs because
A)both hormone and receptor are taken into the cell by phagocytosis.
B)receptor molecules are degraded more quickly.
C)there is a decrease in the rate of receptor synthesis.
D)all of these
26

Because of the down-regulation of GnRH
A)the number of receptors for GnRH on the pituitary gland is increased.
B)the number of receptors for GnRH on the pituitary gland is unchanged.
C)the number of receptors for GnRH on the pituitary gland is decreased.
27

Up-regulation
A)is responsible for periodic decreases in sensitivity of some tissues to certain hormones.
B)is responsible for the increase of LH receptors in ovarian tissue.
C)occurs when one hormone decreases the sensitivity of a tissue to a second hormone.
D)all of these
28

Which of these hormone types bind to intracellular receptors?
A)proteins
B)glycoproteins
C)polypeptides
D)epinephrine
E)steroids
29

Given these events:

1. activities of the cell are altered
2. G protein subunits separate
3. GTP replaces GDP on alpha subunit

List them in the correct order as they occur after a hormone binds to a membrane-bound receptor.
A)1,2,3
B)1,3,2
C)2,1,3
D)2,3,1
E)3,1,2
30

Phosphodiesterase
A)converts GDP to GTP.
B)opens Na+ ion channels.
C)opens Cl- ion channels.
D)breaks down cAMP to AMP.
E)separates the alpha subunit from the others.
31

Given these events:

1. alpha subunit attaches to GTP
2. alpha subunit combines with Ca2+ ion channel
3. Ca2+ ions diffuse into cell
4. epinephrine binds to beta-adrenergic receptor
5. G protein subunits separate

Arrange them in the correct order after epinephrine binds to a beta-adrenergic receptor on the heart.
A)1,2,3,4,5
B)2,4,3,1,5
C)3,5,2,1,4
D)4,5,1,2,3
E)5,1,2,3,4
32

Given these events:

1. alpha subunit binds to adenylyl cyclase
2. cAMP is produced
3. cAMP binds to protein kinase
4. phosphate groups are attached to enzymes
5. phosphodiesterase breaks down cAMP

Arrange them in the correct order as they occur after the G protein dissociates.
A)1,2,3,4,5
B)1,3,2,5,4
C)2,3,5,4,1
D)3,4,1,2,5
E)5,4,3,2,1
33

Which of these is NOT an intracellular mediator molecule?
A)cAMP
B)cGMP
C)ADH
D)DAG
E)IP3
34

Intracellular mediator molecules
A)often produce rapid responses.
B)influence already existing enzymes.
C)cause a cascade effect.
D)can cause a few molecules to affect the activities of many enzymes.
E)all of these
35

Given these events:

1. enzyme on receptor is activated
2. enzyme activity in cell is altered
3. insulin binds to membrane-bound receptor
4. phosphate groups are attached to specific intracellular proteins

Arrange the events in the correct order as insulin influences intracellular activity.
A)1,2,3,4
B)2,1,4,3
C)3,1,4,2
D)3,4,1,2
E)4,3,2,1
36

Lipid-soluble hormones
A)can bind to plasma proteins.
B)attach to intracellular receptors in target cells.
C)tend to have slower onset and longer duration.
D)include steroids.
E)all of these
37

Intracellular hormone receptors are located
A)floating freely in the cytoplasm of target cells.
B)in the nucleus.
C)in the mitochondria.
D)in the endoplasmic reticulum.
E)both a and b
38

Given these events:

1. protein is synthesized
2. mRNA is synthesized
3. aldosterone binds to aldosterone receptor in the cytoplasm
4. aldosterone-receptor complex moves into the nucleus
5. mRNA leaves the nucleus

Choose the correct sequence of events that occur after aldosterone diffuses through the plasma membrane of a target cell.
A)1,2,3,4,5
B)2,4,1,3,5
C)3,4,2,5,1
D)4,3,2,5,1
E)5,1,3,4,2
39

The largest number of hormones binds to
A)membrane-bound receptors and control ion channels.
B)membrane-bound receptors and activate G proteins.
C)membrane-bound receptors that phosphorylate intracellular proteins.
D)intracellular receptors.
40

Target organs for specific hormones are determined by
A)whether the hormone is water-soluble or lipid-soluble.
B)how close the target organ is to the endocrine gland that secretes that hormone.
C)the type of receptors on that organ.
D)how much hormone is secreted.
E)the blood supply to the specific organ.