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Anatomy and Physiology, 6/e
Rod Seeley, Idaho State University
Trent Stephens, Idaho State University
Philip Tate, Phoenix College

Endocrine Glands

Chapter Quiz



1

The hypothalamus
A)regulates the secretory activity of the pituitary gland.
B)is connected to the pituitary gland by the optic chiasma.
C)has neurons that connect to the anterior pituitary.
D)contains the infundibulum, which secretes many hormones.
E)all of these
2

Hormones secreted from the posterior pituitary
A)are produced by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus.
B)are transported in the hypothalamohypophysial portal system.
C)include GH and ACTH.
D)are classified as pheromones.
E)both a and b
3

One effect of ADH is to
A)decrease urine volume.
B)increase blood osmolality.
C)decrease blood volume.
D)all of these
4

Oxytocin secretion causes
A)milk ejection in lactating females.
B)uterine contractions.
C)increased urine volume.
D)decreased blood volume.
E)both a and b
5

Hormones that are secreted from the anterior pituitary are produced in
A)the hypothalamus.
B)the anterior pituitary.
C)the posterior pituitary.
D)the infundibulum.
E)neurosecretory cells.
6

Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones
A)are secreted from the posterior pituitary.
B)are all neurohormones.
C)travel through the hypothalamohypophysial tract.
D)influence the release of hormones from the posterior pituitary.
E)affect target cells throughout the body.
7

The factors that stimulate secretion of ADH include
A)stress.
B)decreased blood osmolality.
C)decreased blood volume.
D)all of these
8

A person with no ADH secretion (diabetes insipidus) might have symptoms including
A)high blood pressure.
B)extremely low urine output.
C)extreme thirst and dehydration.
D)increased water retention.
E)all of these
9

Oxytocin secretion is stimulated by
A)decreased blood osmolality.
B)increased blood pressure.
C)stretches of the uterus.
D)stress.
E)GnRH.
10

Anterior pituitary hormones
A)have a long half-life.
B)bind to intracellular receptors.
C)include oxytocin and ADH.
D)are proteins, glycoproteins, or polypeptides.
E)are stimulated by tropic hormones.
11

Growth hormone causes
A)increased somatomedin production.
B)increased fat storage.
C)increased glycogen breakdown.
D)increased use of glucose as an energy source.
E)decreased uptake of amino acids into the cells.
12

Which of these factors results in increased GH secretion?
A)high blood glucose
B)increased GH-IH secretion
C)stress
D)decreased amino acids in the blood
E)all of these
13

GH has a negative-feedback effect on the secretion of
A)GH-IH.
B)GH-RH.
C)TSH.
D)ADH.
E)ACTH.
14

Hypersecretion of GH in adults produces
A)dwarfism.
B)giantism.
C)acromegaly.
15

A molecule that has the same effects as opiate drugs (such as morphine, opium, and heroin) is
A)ACTH.
B)beta endorphin.
C)lipotropin.
D)MSH.
E)PRH.
16

All of these hormones are neurohormones produced in the hypothalamus EXCEPT
A)GnRH.
B)PRH.
C)PIH.
D)FSH.
E)GH-RH.
17

The major, more potent form of thyroid hormone that interacts with target cells is
A)tetraiodothyronine (T4).
B)triiodothyronine (T3).
C)thyroglobulin.
D)thyroxine-binding globulin.
E)tyrosine.
18

Which of these molecules binds to most thyroid hormones and increases the half-life of thyroid hormones?
A)thyroglobulin
B)tyrosine
C)triiodothyronine (T3)
D)tetraiodothyronine (T4)
E)thyroxine-binding globulin
19

Which of these symptoms is a result of hyperthyroidism?
A)rapid heart rate
B)cretinism
C)cold intolerance
D)myxedema
E)reduced appetite
20

Which of these conditions causes increased TRH secretion?
A)increased T3 secretion
B)increased T4 secretion
C)hypothermia
D)prolonged fasting
E)all of these
21

T3 and T4
A)are synthesized in parafollicular cells of the thyroid.
B)are bound to thyroglobulin during synthesis.
C)are synthesized from iron and the amino acid tyrosine.
D)are produced in equal amounts by the thyroid.
E)all of these
22

A deficiency of iodine in the diet causes
A)increased TSH secretion.
B)decreased T3 and T4 production.
C)increased TRH production.
D)thyroid enlargement (goiter).
E)all of these
23

Thyroid hormones cause
A)increased glucose, fat, and protein metabolism.
B)increased body temperature.
C)increased ATP production.
D)normal growth and development.
E)all of these
24

The cells in the thyroid responsible for calcitonin secretion are
A)follicle cells.
B)thyroglobulin cells.
C)cortical cells.
D)parafollicular cells.
E)hypothalamic cells.
25

Which of these conditions produce(s) elevated TSH secretion?
A)iodine deficiency
B)surgically removed thyroid
C)pituitary tumor
D)all of these
26

When parathyroid hormone increases,
A)osteoclast activity decreases.
B)calcium reabsorption in the kidney decreases.
C)calcium absorption in the small intestine decreases.
D)blood calcium level decreases.
E)blood phosphate level decreases.
27

Which of these symptoms occur as a result of hypersecretion of PTH?
A)increased muscular excitability
B)muscle tetany
C)kidney stones
D)depolarization of cell membrane
E)all of these
28

The adrenal medulla
A)is derived from mesoderm.
B)is the outer portion of adrenal glands.
C)contains the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis.
D)is part of the parasympathetic division of the ANS.
E)produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
29

All of these cause increased secretion of hormones from the adrenal medulla EXCEPT
A)high blood glucose levels.
B)stimulation by sympathetic neurons.
C)emotional excitement.
D)stress.
E)exercise.
30

Aldosterone
A)is a glucocorticoid hormone.
B)is secreted by the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex.
C)increases sodium concentration in the blood.
D)increases potassium concentration in the blood.
E)all of these
31

Hyposecretion of aldosterone causes
A)alkalosis.
B)hyperkalemia.
C)high blood pressure.
D)skeletal muscle weakness.
E)hypernatremia.
32

If cortisol secretion increases,
A)protein catabolism (breakdown) decreases.
B)fat catabolism (breakdown) decreases.
C)the inflammatory response decreases.
D)blood glucose level decreases.
E)glycogen deposits in cells decrease.
33

Which of these inhibits CRH secretion?
A)stress
B)ACTH
C)cortisol
D)hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
E)both b and c
34

Glucagon increases
A)breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
B)glucose synthesis from amino acids and fats.
C)blood sugar levels.
D)fat breakdown.
E)all of these
35

All of these are symptoms of diabetes mellitus EXCEPT
A)polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia.
B)hyperglycemia.
C)peripheral vascular disease.
D)insulin shock.
E)acidosis.
36

Which of these factors increases insulin secretion?
A)sympathetic stimulation
B)hypoglycemia
C)secretion of gastrointestinal hormones
D)decreased amino acids in the blood
E)both b and c
37

Immediately after a meal, which hormone level increases?
A)cortisol
B)epinephrine
C)glucagon
D)growth hormone
E)insulin
38

Melatonin
A)is produced by the posterior pituitary.
B)production increases as light increases.
C)inhibits GnRH secretion.
D)increases skin pigmentation.
E)all of these
39

Which of these autocrine chemical signals, produced by most tissues of the body, can promote inflammation?
A)endorphins
B)enkephalins
C)thymosins
D)prostaglandins
E)melatonins
40

Which of these substances is responsible for the processing of T cells?
A)endorphin
B)enkephalin
C)prostaglandin
D)thymosin
E)melatonin