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Anatomy and Physiology, 6/e
Rod Seeley, Idaho State University
Trent Stephens, Idaho State University
Philip Tate, Phoenix College

The Chemical Basis of Life

Chapter Quiz



1

Which of these is a measurement of gravitational force?
A)mass
B)matter
C)weight
D)valance
E)electronegativity
2

Neutrons are subatomic particles that
A)are located in the nucleus and have a positive charge.
B)are located in the nucleus and have no charge.
C)are located in the nucleus and have a negative charge.
D)are located around the nucleus and have a positive charge.
E)are located around the nucleus and have a negative charge.
3

Most of the volume of an atom is occupied by the
A)electrons.
B)neutrons.
C)protons.
D)protons and neutrons.
4

The simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties is
A)an electron.
B)an element.
C)a neutron.
D)a proton.
E)an isotope.
5

The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of
A)electrons in each atom.
B)neutrons in each atom.
C)protons in each atom.
D)protons plus electrons in each atom.
E)neutrons plus electrons in each atom.
6

Which of the pairs below are equal to each other in an atom?
A)neutrons and protons
B)protons and electrons
C)neutrons and electrons
D)atomic number and mass number
E)mass number and electrons
7

Given that manganese (Mn) has an atomic number of 25 and a mass number of 55, an atom of manganese has
A)25 neutrons.
B)25 electrons.
C)30 electrons.
D)55 protons.
E)80 neutrons.
8

Selenium (Se) has 34 protons and 46 neutrons in each atom, therefore its atomic number is __________ and its mass number is __________.
A)12, 46
B)34, 46
C)12, 34
D)34, 80
E)46, 80
9

14N and 15N are
A)different elements.
B)atoms with different atomic numbers.
C)isotopes of the same element.
D)identical except for different numbers of electrons.
E)identical except for different numbers of protons.
10

In the human body, which element makes up the largest percentage of atoms by number?
A)carbon
B)fluorine
C)hydrogen
D)nitrogen
E)oxygen
11

Given that the atomic mass of magnesium is 24.31, which of these statements is true?
A)24.31g of magnesium contains 1 mol of magnesium atoms.
B)24.31g of magnesium contains Avogadro's number of magnesium atoms.
C)24.31g of magnesium contains 6.022 x 1023 magnesium atoms.
D)24.31g of magnesium has the same number of atoms as 12.01 g of carbon..
E)All of these are true.
12

The chemical behavior of an atom is determined largely by
A)its number of protons.
B)its outermost electrons.
C)the size of the electron cloud.
D)its mass.
E)its weight.
13

Chemical bonding occurs when the __________ are transferred or shared between atoms.
A)outer protons
B)largest neutrons
C)outermost electrons
D)innermost electrons
E)outermost protons
14

Ionic bonding occurs when
A)a cation and an anion are attracted to each other.
B)two cations are attracted to each other.
C)two anions are attracted to each other.
D)two atoms lose protons.
E)two atoms lose neutrons.
15

An atom that gains an electron
A)becomes a cation.
B)becomes a different isotope of the same element.
C)has a different atomic number.
D)becomes an anion.
E)explodes.
16

A calcium ion (Ca2+)
A)has lost two electrons.
B)has gained two electrons.
C)has gained two protons.
D)has lost two protons.
E)has gained two neutrons.
17

When two hydrogen atoms each share an electron with an oxygen atom (H2O),
A)polar covalent bonding occurs.
B)nonpolar covalent bonding occurs.
C)ionic bonding occurs.
D)metallic bonding occurs.
E)it is called a james bond.
18

When a positively charged hydrogen atom of one water molecule is attracted to a negatively charged oxygen atom of another water molecule,
A)covalent bonding occurs.
B)hydrogen bonding occurs.
C)ionic bonding occurs.
D)metallic bonding occurs.
19

Potassium chloride is formed when a potassium ion (K+) is attracted to a chloride ion (Cl-). Therefore, potassium chloride is
A)an atom.
B)a molecule.
C)a compound.
D)a metal.
E)all of these
20

If potassium chloride is placed in water, it will
A)form strong covalent bonds with the water molecules.
B)dissociate into separate ions.
C)not mix with the water.
D)become nonpolar.
E)form covalent potassium chloride molecules.
21

Which of these substances is nonpolar?
A)canola oil
B)glucose
C)potassium chloride
D)sodium chloride (table salt)
E)sucrose (table sugar)
22

Which of these substances is an electrolyte?
A)canola oil
B)glucose
C)fructose
D)sodium chloride
E)sucrose
23

A synthesis reaction
A)may be a dehydration reaction.
B)results in catabolism.
C)may be a hydrolysis reaction.
D)breaks down a larger reactant into two or more smaller products.
E)all of these
24

All of the synthesis and decomposition reactions that take place in the body are collectively referred to as
A)anabolism.
B)catabolism.
C)dissociation.
D)electrolytes.
E)metabolism.
25

The gain of an electron by an atom is called
A)anabolism.
B)catabolism.
C)oxidation.
D)reduction.
E)synthesis.
26

In which of these types of reactions does an equilibrium occur?
A)decomposition reaction
B)synthesis reaction
C)exchange reaction
D)reversible reaction
27

Chemical events in cells are regulated primarily by mechanisms that control either the concentration or the activity of
A)acids.
B)bases.
C)enzymes.
D)lipids.
E)sugars.
28

__________ energy results from the relative positions and interactions among the charged subatomic particles of a substance.
A)Chemical
B)Electric
C)Electromagnetic
D)Heat
E)Mechanical
29

Ultraviolet light is an example of
A)chemical energy.
B)electric energy.
C)electromagnetic energy.
D)heat energy.
E)mechanical energy.
30

In which of these reactions is energy released?
A)hydrolysis of ATP to ADP
B)production of ATP from ADP
C)photosynthesis
D)production of glucose from CO2 and H2O
E)all of these
31

Osmolality
A)reflects the number of atoms in a solution.
B)of normal body fluid is about 300 osmoles.
C)influences the movement of water into and out of cells.
D)indicates the percent of solute by weight per volume of solution.
E)reflects the percent of solvent in a solution.
32

If the number of hydrogen ions in a solution is increased, the
A)solution becomes more acidic.
B)solution becomes more alkaline (basic).
C)pH of the solution will be increased.
D)solution is a buffer.
E)pH of the solution remains unchanged.
33

Potassium hydroxide (KOH) dissociates in solution to produce K+ and OH-; therefore it is classified as
A)an acid.
B)a base.
C)a buffer.
D)a neutral substance.
34

Which of these is a monosaccharide?
A)sucrose
B)starch
C)glycogen
D)glucose
E)cellulose
35

Which of these molecules does NOT consist of glucose molecules joined together?
A)cellulose
B)glycogen
C)maltose
D)sucrose
E)starch
36

__________ constitute 95% of the fats in the human body.
A)Phospholipids
B)Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes
C)Steroids
D)Triglycerides
E)Vitamins
37

__________ are the building blocks for proteins.
A)Amino acids
B)Fatty acids and glycerol
C)Monosaccharides
D)Disaccharides
E)Nucleic acids
38

The __________ structure of a protein results from the folding of the helices or pleated sheets.
A)primary
B)penitentiary
C)quaternary
D)secondary
E)tertiary
39

Enzymes
A)are always composed of monosaccharides.
B)function by raising the activation energy required for a reaction.
C)can control many different reactions.
D)generally decrease the rate of chemical reactions.
E)sometimes require cofactors to be functional.
40

Which of these are NOT a part of nucleotide molecules?
A)ribose or deoxyribose
B)nitrogenous organic bases
C)phosphate groups
D)purines and pyrimidines
E)peptides