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Anatomy and Physiology, 6/e
Rod Seeley, Idaho State University
Trent Stephens, Idaho State University
Philip Tate, Phoenix College

Urinary System

Chapter Quiz



1

Fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each kidney is the
A)cortex.
B)hilum.
C)medulla.
D)renal capsule.
E)renal pyramids.
2

The apex of the renal pyramid is called the
A)major calyx.
B)minor calyx
C)renal papilla.
D)renal pelvis.
E)ureter.
3

The major calyces of the kidney converge to form an enlarged channel called the
A)renal fascia.
B)renal pelvis.
C)renal pyramids.
D)renal papillae.
E)renal sinus.
4

The basic histological and functional unit of the kidney is the
A)glomerulus.
B)filtration membrane.
C)nephron.
D)podocyte.
E)renal corpuscle.
5

Given these parts of a nephron:

1. renal corpuscle
2. collecting duct
3. loop of Henle
4. distal tubule
5. proximal tubule

Arrange the parts in order as fluid flows from the filtration membrane through the nephron.
A)1,5,3,4,2
B)2,4,1,3,5
C)2,1,4,5,3
D)4,2,3,5,1
E)5,1,3,4,2
6

The tuft of capillaries in the renal corpuscle is called the
A)podocytes.
B)glomerulus.
C)calyx.
D)renal pyramid.
E)renal sinus.
7

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is formed where the __________ projects between the afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole next to Bowman's capsule.
A)glomerulus
B)arcuate arteries
C)proximal tubule
D)distal tubule
E)collecting duct
8

Collectively, the capillary epithelium, basement membrane, and podocytes form the
A)filtration membrane.
B)glomerulus.
C)juxtamedullary nephron.
D)nephron.
E)renal corpuscle.
9

The part of a nephron between Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle is the
A)collecting duct.
B)distal tubule.
C)juxtaglomerular apparatus.
D)macula densa.
E)proximal tubule.
10

The __________ are specialized portions of the peritubular capillaries that extend deep into the medulla of the kidney.
A)interlobar arteries
B)arcuate arteries
C)efferent arterioles
D)afferent arterioles
E)vasa recta
11

Given these vessels:

1. arcuate vein
2. afferent arteriole
3. efferent arteriole
4. interlobular vein
5. peritubular capillaries

Arrange the vessels in the order in which a drop of blood from the interlobular artery passes through them.
A)1,2,4,5,3
B)2,3,5,4,1
C)3,5,4,2,1
D)4,2,5,3,1
E)5,2,4,1,3
12

The triangular area of the urinary bladder between the two ureters posteriorly and the urethra anteriorly is the
A)external urinary sphincter.
B)internal urinary sphincter.
C)smooth muscle.
D)transitional epithelium.
E)trigone.
13

Skeletal muscle that surrounds the urethra as it extends through the pelvic floor is the
A)external urinary sphincter.
B)internal urinary sphincter.
C)trigone.
14

Active transport of substances from the blood into the nephron is called
A)filtration.
B)tubular reabsorption.
C)tubular secretion.
15

The movement of substances from the filtrate back into the blood of the peritubular capillaries is called
A)filtration.
B)tubular secretion.
C)backflow.
D)tubular reabsorption.
E)micturition.
16

The part of the total cardiac output that passes through the kidneys is called the
A)filtration fraction.
B)plasma clearance.
C)renal blood flow rate.
D)renal fraction.
E)tubular maximum.
17

The part of the plasma volume that passes through the filtration membrane is the
A)filtration fraction.
B)plasma clearance.
C)renal blood flow rate.
D)renal fraction.
E)tubular maximum.
18

Which of these substances normally cannot pass through the filtration membrane?
A)hemoglobin
B)water
C)sodium ions
D)bicarbonate ions
E)glucose
19

Of the filtrate that enters the nephron, about what percent is reabsorbed during urine formation?
A)99%
B)95%
C)80%
D)65%
E)19%
20

A decrease in plasma proteins results in
A)decreased colloid osmotic pressure.
B)increased colloid osmotic pressure.
C)increased glomerular capillary pressure.
D)decreased filtration pressure.
E)increased tubular reabsorption.
21

As filtrate moves through the thin segment of the descending limb of the loop of Henle, water moves __________ the nephron, and solutes move __________ the nephron.
A)into, into
B)into, out of
C)out of, into
D)out of, out of
22

During tubular reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the nephron, most solutes are moved across the apical membrane by __________ , and across the basal membrane by __________ .
A)cotransport, cotransport
B)cotransport, facilitated diffusion
C)counter transport, cotransport
D)facilitated diffusion, cotransport
E)primary active transport, cotransport
23

In kidney nephron epithelial cells, solutes are cotransported with
A)Ca2+ ions.
B)Cl- ions.
C)K+ ions.
D)Mg2+ ions.
E)Na+ ions.
24

In kidney nephron epithelial cells, __________ are moved by counter transport through the basal membrane in exchange for K+ ions.
A)Ca2+ ions
B)Cl- ions
C)H+ ions
D)Mg2+ ions
E)Na+ ions
25

The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is __________ to water.
A)impermeable
B)moderately permeable
C)permeable
26

The percentage of filtrate volume reabsorbed in the proximal tubule is
A)99%.
B)80%.
C)65%.
D)19%.
E)15%.
27

These ions are cotransported across the apical membrane in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
A)K+ ions and Cl- ions
B)K+ ions and Mg2+ ions
C)Ca2+ ions and K+ ions
D)Ca2+ ions and Cl- ions
E)Ca2+ ions and Mg2+ ions
28

The permeability of the distal tubule and the collecting duct is controlled by
A)ADH.
B)aldosterone.
C)atrial natriuretic factor.
D)carrier molecules.
E)sodium ions.
29

All of these compounds are reabsorbed from the filtrate back into the blood EXCEPT
A)amino acids.
B)fructose.
C)Na+ ions.
D)penicillin.
E)Ca2+ ions.
30

At which of these locations is the osmolality of the filtrate the highest?
A)Bowman's capsule
B)proximal tubule
C)bottom of the loop of Henle
D)distal tubule
E)top of the collecting duct
31

Renal tubules are __________ permeable to urea than they are to water, therefore urea concentration in the tubules __________ .
A)less, decreases
B)less, increases
C)more, decreases
D)more, increases
32

Which of these substances is actively transported into the filtrate in the proximal and distal tubule?
A)H+ ions
B)Na+ ions
C)glucose
D)amino acids
E)Cl- ions
33

The countercurrent multiplier mechanism of the nephron is in the
A)proximal tubule and distal tubule.
B)loop of Henle and vasa recta.
C)distal tubule and collecting duct.
D)glomerulus and Bowman's capsule.
E)glomerulus and collecting duct.
34

Urea diffuses out of the __________ , and into the __________ .
A)proximal tubule, distal tubule
B)proximal tubule, descending limb of the loop of Henle
C)descending limb of the loop of Henle, ascending limb of the loop of Henle
D)ascending limb of the loop of Henle, descending limb of the loop of Henle
E)collecting duct, descending limb of the loop of Henle
35

Juxtaglomerular cells secrete
A)ADH.
B)oxytocin.
C)renin.
D)aldosterone.
E)angiotensin
36

Drinking a large amount of beer results in
A)increased aldosterone secretion.
B)increased permeability of the collecting ducts of the nephrons.
C)decreased urine osmolality.
D)increased urine volume.
E)both c and d
37

Which of these conditions increases the amount of urine produced?
A)increased ADH secretion
B)increased atrial natriuretic hormone secretion
C)increased aldosterone secretion
D)decreased blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries
E)sympathetic stimulation of the renal arteries
38

Angiotensin II causes
A)increased ADH secretion.
B)increased thirst.
C)increased salt appetite.
D)increased peripheral resistance.
E)all of these
39

When the tubular load of a substance exceeds the tubular maximum, that substance will
A)be actively transported into the blood.
B)diffuse into the blood.
C)appear in the urine.
D)cause a backflow of filtrate from Bowman's capsule into the glomerulus.
E)be broken down by carbonic anhydrase.
40

The micturition reflex
A)can be stimulated or inhibited by higher centers in the brain.
B)is stimulated by increased pressure in the bladder.
C)can be stimulated by irritation of the bladder or urethra.
D)all of these