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Anatomy and Physiology, 6/e
Rod Seeley, Idaho State University
Trent Stephens, Idaho State University
Philip Tate, Phoenix College

Water, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balance

Chapter Quiz



1

__________ accounts for about 40% of the total body weight.
A)Extracellular fluid
B)Interstitial fluid
C)Intracellular fluid
D)Plasma
2

Intracellular fluid
A)comprises a smaller percentage of body weight than extracellular fluid.
B)has a lower concentration of sodium ions than extracellular fluid.
C)has a lower concentration of potassium ions than extracellular fluid.
D)has a higher concentration of calcium ions than extracellular fluid.
E)all of these
3

If the solute concentration in the extracellular fluid decreases, water
A)moves into the cells.
B)moves out of the cells.
C)moves out of the blood.
D)will not move.
4

Approximately 90-95% of the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluid is caused by and the negative ions associated with them.
A)Ca2+ ions
B)K+ ions
C)Mg2+ ions
D)Na+ ions
5

In the body, the dominant extracellular cations are
A)Ca2+ ions.
B)K+ ions.
C)Mg2+ ions.
D)Na+ ions.
E)Cl- ions.
6

Large organic molecules such as proteins are not usually found in the
A)interstitial fluid.
B)intracellular fluid.
C)plasma.
7

Increased blood pressure stimulates the release of
A)aldosterone.
B)ADH.
C)atrial natriuretic hormone.
D)renin.
E)angiotensin II.
8

The most important regulator of blood osmolality is
A)aldosterone.
B)ADH.
C)atrial natriuretic hormone.
D)renin.
E)angiotensin II.
9

If blood pressure decreases, blood levels of __________ increase.
A)aldosterone
B)angiotensin II
C)ADH
D)renin
E)all of these
10

Which ions are most important for establishing the resting membrane potential (RMP)?
A)Ca2+ ions
B)Cl- ions
C)K+ ions
D)Mg2+ ions
E)Na+ ions
11

__________ plays a major role in regulating the concentration of K+ ions in the extracellular fluid by increasing the rate of K+ ion secretion in the distal tubule and collecting duct.
A)Aldosterone
B)Angiotensin II
C)ADH
D)Atrial natriuretic hormone
E)Renin
12

Aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by angiotensin II and
A)elevated blood Na+ ion levels.
B)decreased blood Cl- ion levels.
C)elevated blood K+ ion levels.
D)decreased blood Ca2+ ion levels.
E)elevated blood pressure.
13

Parathyroid hormone __________ blood calcium levels and calcitonin __________ blood calcium levels.
A)decreases, decreases
B)decreases, increases
C)increases, decreases
D)increases, increases
14

__________ is necessary for the transport of Ca2+ ions across the wall of the intestinal tract.
A)Calcitonin
B)PTH
C)Aldosterone
D)Angiotensin II
E)Vitamin D
15

Hypocalcemia has which of these symptoms?
A)anorexia
B)constipation
C)fatigue
D)muscle spasms
E)kidney stones
16

The major mechanism that controls plasma levels of calcium ions is
A)the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism.
B)the phosphate transport mechanism in the nephron.
C)atrial natriuretic hormone secretion.
D)ADH secretion.
E)parathyroid hormone secretion.
17

The most abundant negatively charged ion in the extracellular fluid is
A)ammonium.
B)bicarbonate
C)chloride.
D)sulfate.
18

Loss of a large volume of sweat results in the body fluids becoming __________ which causes __________ in plasma volume.
A)hypertonic, a decrease
B)hypertonic, an increase
C)isotonic, no change
D)hypotonic, a decrease
E)hypotonic, an increase
19

Thirst is stimulated by
A)increased osmolality of the blood.
B)decreased blood volume.
C)increased angiotensin II.
D)all of these
20

Which of these normally represents the SMALLEST source of water loss from the body?
A)evaporation
B)feces
C)sensible and insensible perspiration
D)urine
21

During conditions of severe dehydration, hematocrit __________ , which results in a(n) __________ in blood viscosity.
A)decreases, decrease
B)decreases, increase
C)increases, decrease
D)increases, increase
22

The ____________ are the primary organs that regulate the composition and volume of body fluids.
A)kidneys
B)lungs
C)blood vessels
D)intestines
E)liver and gall bladder
23

Which of these conditions produces a large volume of dilute urine?
A)decreased ADH secretion
B)increased renin secretion
C)increased angiotensin II production
D)increased aldosterone secretion
E)all of these
24

An acid
A)has a pH below 7.
B)that completely dissociates in solution is a strong acid.
C)releases hydrogen ions into a solution.
D)is a compound such as H2CO3.
E)all of these
25

Which of these is NOT one of the major buffer systems in the body?
A)lactic acid buffer system
B)carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system
C)phosphate buffer system
D)protein buffer system
26

Buffers
A)bind to excess H+ ions that are added to a solution.
B)prevent large changes in body fluid pH.
C)may involve weak acids.
D)release H+ ions when H+ ion concentration in a solution falls.
E)all of these
27

Nephrons directly regulate acid-base balance by
A)combining H+ ions with Cl- ions.
B)forming carbon dioxide.
C)secreting H+ ions into the filtrate.
D)producing carbonic anhydrase.
E)producing protein buffers.
28

The major effect of acidosis is the __________ of the nervous system, whereas a major effect of alkalosis is __________ of the nervous system.
A)depression, hyperexcitability
B)hyperexcitability, depression
29

The largest buffer system in the body is the
A)carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system.
B)phosphate buffer system.
C)protein buffer system.
30

Respiratory regulation of pH depends upon the
A)carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system.
B)phosphate buffer system.
C)protein buffer system.
31

The reaction between CO2 and H2O is catalyzed by
A)angiotensin-converting enzyme.
B)carbonic anhydrase.
C)sodium bicarbonate.
D)phosphate.
E)carbonic acid.
32

When hydrogen ions are secreted into the lumen of the nephron, sodium ions and __________ pass into the extracellular fluid.
A)chloride ions
B)potassium ions
C)calcium ions
D)bicarbonate ions
E)sulfate ions
33

Decreased elimination of CO2 from the body causes pH to __________ and can result in __________ .
A)decrease, acidosis.
B)decrease, alkalosis.
C)increase, acidosis
D)increase, alkalosis
34

If the pH of the blood decreases, the pH of the urine will
A)decrease.
B)increase.
C)be unaffected.
35

Increased ammonia in the urine and a continuously elevated respiratory rate indicate
A)respiratory acidosis.
B)respiratory alkalosis.
C)metabolic acidosis.
D)metabolic alkalosis.
36

Which of these is NOT a buffer found in the filtrate of the nephron?
A)ammonia
B)bicarbonate
C)phosphate
D)protein
37

Alkalosis
A)occurs when the pH of the body fluids is less than 7.35.
B)can be caused by hyperventilation.
C)can occur as a result of anaerobic respiration.
D)can result from production of urine that has a high pH.
E)all of these
38

Someone who has untreated diabetes mellitus also likely has
A)metabolic acidosis.
B)respiratory acidosis.
39

Hypersecretion of aldosterone causes
A)increased water retention.
B)alkalosis.
C)high blood sodium levels.
D)all of these
40

Because of greatly decreased PO2, traveling to a very high altitude could cause
A)metabolic acidosis.
B)respiratory acidosis.
C)metabolic alkalosis.
D)respiratory alkalosis.