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Anatomy and Physiology, 6/e
Rod Seeley, Idaho State University
Trent Stephens, Idaho State University
Philip Tate, Phoenix College

Structure and Function of the Cell

Chapter Quiz



1

The largest percentage of molecules that make up the cell membrane are
A)carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins.
B)carbohydrates, water, and nucleic acids.
C)phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins.
D)nucleic acids, amino acids, and fatty acids.
E)water, carbohydrates and cholesterol.
2

In the fluid mosaic model, the double layer (bilayer) of molecules found in the cell membrane is made up of
A)cholesterol.
B)phospholipids.
C)carbohydrates.
D)nucleic acids.
E)proteins.
3

Although the basic structure of the plasma membrane is determined mainly by its __________ , the functions of the plasma membrane are determined mainly by its __________ .
A)carbohydrates, lipids
B)carbohydrates, proteins
C)lipids, proteins
D)nucleic acids, lipids
E)proteins, lipids
4

Which molecules in the cell membrane are mostly glycoproteins?
A)carrier molecules
B)channel proteins
C)marker molecules
D)receptor molecules
E)enzymes
5

Which of these conditions decreases the rate of diffusion?
A)increased concentration gradient
B)increased viscosity
C)increased temperature
D)decreased size of solute particles
E)all of these
6

Which of these substances diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane?
A)glucose and amino acids
B)Na+ and Cl-
C)O2 and CO2
D)whole cells
7

A 10% salt solution is __________ to distilled water.
A)isosmotic
B)hyperosmotic
C)hyposmotic
8

You place blood cells in an unknown solution and observe them with a microscope; you notice that most of the cells have crenated. Therefore, you conclude that the unknown solution is
A)isosmotic to the cells.
B)hyperosmotic to the cells.
C)isotonic to the cells.
D)hypertonic to the cells.
E)hypotonic to the cells.
9

Solution A has a greater osmotic pressure that solution B. Therefore, solution A contains __________ solutes and __________ water than solution B.
A)fewer, less
B)fewer, more
C)more, less
D)more, more
10

In question 18 above, if the containers for solution A and solution B are connected, with a selectively permeable membrane between them, water moves
A)from solution A to solution B.
B)from solution B to solution A.
C)equally in both directions.
11

__________ depends upon a pressure difference on either side of a partition.
A)Active transport
B)Endocytosis
C)Facilitated diffusion
D)Filtration
E)Secondary active transport
12

Which of these transport processes does NOT require ATP?
A)active transport
B)endocytosis
C)exocytosis
D)diffusion
E)secondary active transport
13

Given these observations concerning a transport process into a cell:
1. ATP is required
2. does not exhibit saturation
3. solid particles are transported

The transport process involved is
A)active transport.
B)facilitated diffusion.
C)secondary active transport.
D)phagocytosis.
E)pinocytosis.
14

Given these characteristics of a transport process:

1. moves with the concentration gradient
2. does not require energy
3. requires carrier molecules

Which of these processes is described?
A)diffusion
B)facilitated diffusion
C)active transport
D)exocytosis
E)phagocytosis
15

Formation of a secretory vesicle, fusion of the secretory vesicle to the cell membrane, and release of the contents of the secretory vesicles outside the cell describes
A)diffusion.
B)facilitated diffusion.
C)active transport.
D)phagocytosis.
E)exocytosis.
16

Which of these processes involves a sodium-potassium exchange pump and two carrier molecules?
A)active transport
B)cotransport
C)diffusion
D)endocytosis
E)facilitated diffusion
17

Microtubules are
A)composed of actin filaments.
B)essential components of cilia, flagella, centrioles, and spindle fibers.
C)responsible for changes in cell shape.
D)smaller in diameter than other cytoskeleton components.
E)all of these
18

Which of these organelles function as intracellular digestive systems and contain enzymes?
A)lysosomes
B)rough endoplasmic reticulum
C)Golgi apparatus
D)nucleus
E)secretory vesicles
19

The production and export of milk from mammary gland cells involves which of these cell organelles?
A)Golgi apparatus
B)rough endoplasmic reticulum
C)smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D)vesicles
E)all of these
20

During embryonic development, some structures are formed and then degenerate; the cell organelles responsible for the breakdown of these structures are the
A)Golgi apparatuses.
B)lysosomes.
C)mitochondria.
D)rough endoplasmic reticulum.
E)smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
21

As a result of exercise, there is an increase in the number of __________ in muscle cells.
A)nuclei
B)mitochondria
C)lysosomes
D)Golgi apparatus
E)smooth endoplasmic reticulum
22

Which of these organelles is surrounded by a double membrane layer that contains many pores?
A)nucleus
B)rough endoplasmic reticulum
C)Golgi apparatus
D)lysosomes
E)both a and d
23

In which of these organelles is chromatin found?
A)lysosomes
B)rough endoplasmic reticulum
C)Golgi apparatus
D)secretory vesicles
E)nucleus
24

Subunits of ribosomes are manufactured in the
A)cytoskeleton.
B)endoplasmic reticulum.
C)Golgi apparatus.
D)lysosomes.
E)nucleolus.
25

Which of these organelles contains DNA?
A)Golgi apparatus
B)lysosomes
C)mitochondria
D)rough endoplasmic reticulum
E)smooth endoplasmic reticulum
26

Aerobic respiration produces __________ ATP molecules, __________ require oxygen to be available, and produces __________ as end product(s).
A)2, does not, CO2 and water
B)2, does, lactic acid
C)36-38, does not, lactic acid
D)36-38, does, CO2 and water
27

Chemical reactions that convert glucose to pyruvic acid in the cell are called
A)aerobic respiration.
B)anaerobic respiration.
C)the citric acid cycle.
D)the electron transport system.
E)glycolysis.
28

A sequence of nucleotides in DNA that provides a chemical set of instructions for making a functional protein is called a
A)codon.
B)anticodon.
C)peptide bond.
D)mRNA.
E)gene.
29

Transcription takes place in the __________ of the cell.
A)cytosol
B)Golgi apparatus
C)mitochondria
D)nucleus
E)ribosomes
30

mRNA is copied from
A)DNA.
B)tRNA.
C)ribosomes.
D)polypeptide chains.
E)rRNA.
31

In the DNA molecule, adenine always pairs with
A)cytosine.
B)guanine.
C)uracil.
D)thymine.
32

The __________ on a tRNA molecule pairs with three nucleotides on a mRNA molecule.
A)anticodon
B)codon
C)exon
D)intron
E)gene
33

Regions of DNA that do not code for portions of a protein are called
A)anticodons.
B)codons.
C)exons.
D)introns.
E)genes.
34

During the process of translation, __________ tRNA molecule(s) occupies the tRNA binding site(s) on a ribosome.
A)one
B)two
C)three
D)six
E)hundreds of
35

Part of a proprotein is cleaved off to make a functional protein. This describes
A)posttranscriptional processing.
B)posttranslational processing.
C)transcription.
D)translation.
E)mitosis.
36

Replication of DNA takes place during the
A)G0 phase.
B)G1 phase.
C)G2 phase.
D)S phase.
E)M phase (mitosis).
37

During the process of DNA replication,
A)one new DNA strand is formed.
B)the production of new nucleotide strands is catalyzed by DNA ligase.
C)short segments are spliced together by DNA polymerase.
D)each new DNA molecule has one strand of nucleotides from the original DNA and one newly synthesized strand.
E)all of these
38

By the process of mitosis in a human cell, __________ daughter cells are produced, each of which has __________ chromosomes.
A)2, 46
B)2, 23
C)4, 46
D)4, 23
E)8, 23
39

Which of these processes is associated with meiosis, but not mitosis?
A)DNA replication prior to division
B)cytokinesis
C)crossing over
D)prophase-metaphase-anaphase-telophase sequence
E)all of these
40

The process of meiosis
A)includes meiosis I, II, and III.
B)results in the production of sperm cells or oocytes.
C)produces 4 diploid cells.
D)produces gametes that are identical to the parent cell.
E)produces new cells for growth or tissue repair.