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Anatomy and Physiology, 6/e
Rod Seeley, Idaho State University
Trent Stephens, Idaho State University
Philip Tate, Phoenix College

Skeletal System: Bones and Bone Tissue

Chapter Quiz



1

Regarding skeletal system function,
A)bone often serves as a model for cartilage growth.
B)tendons connect bone to bone.
C)blood cells are produced in the marrow of many bones.
D)cartilage serves as an important mineral storage area.
E)all of these
2

Which of these connective tissue types has proteoglycans in its matrix?
A)bone
B)cartilage
C)ligaments
D)tendons
E)both c and d
3

Cells that produce new cartilage matrix are called
A)chondroblasts.
B)chondrocytes.
C)chondroclasts.
D)osteoblasts.
E)fibroblasts.
4

The perichondrium
A)surrounds each lacuna in the matrix.
B)contains mainly loose connective tissue.
C)contains blood vessels and nerves.
D)is important for the storage of fat.
E)covers the surface of articular cartilage.
5

Cartilage
A)often occurs in thin plates or sheets.
B)receives nutrients and oxygen by diffusion.
C)is easily replaced if damaged.
D)has a good blood supply.
E)A and B
6

Which of these correctly describes appositional growth of cartilage?
A)Chondrocytes in the center of the cartilage lay down new matrix.
B)Fibroblasts produce new chondroblasts.
C)Chondroblasts in the perichondrium lay down new matrix.
D)New osteons are formed from osteoblasts.
E)Canaliculi connect between chondrocytes to allow transport of nutrients.
7

Which of these bone types is NOT matched with the correct example?
A)long bone-humerus
B)short bone-clavicle
C)flat bone-scapula
D)irregular bone-vertebrae
8

In a long bone, the epiphyseal plate is
A)located in the center of the diaphysis.
B)the outer membrane layer on the diaphysis.
C)the location where growth occurs.
D)produced when the epiphyseal line changes to bone.
E)the location for fat storage.
9

The ends of long bones are called
A)diaphyses.
B)epiphyses.
C)lamellae.
D)trabeculae.
10

The surface of the medullary cavity of long bones is lined with a connective tissue membrane called
A)periosteum.
B)epiphyseal plates.
C)endosteum.
D)perichondrium.
E)lamellae.
11

Which portion of a long bone stores yellow marrow in adults?
A)the epiphysis
B)the medullary cavity
C)periosteum
D)compact bone
E)the epiphyseal plate
12

Which of these locations does NOT contain red marrow in an adult?
A)ribs
B)skull
C)proximal femur
D)sternum
E)vertebrae
13

The outer layer of bone, composed of dense, irregular, collagenous connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves is called
A)endosteum.
B)concentric lamellae.
C)periosteum.
D)the epiphyseal plate.
E)the diaphysis.
14

Which of these statements is NOT true regarding bone?
A)Osteoblasts produce bone matrix.
B)Osteocytes are osteoblasts that have become surrounded by matrix.
C)Osteoclasts break down bone.
D)Osteocytes are connected to each other by Volkmann's canals.
E)Osteocytes are found in lacunae.
15

Bundles of collagen fibers that penetrate the periosteum into the outer part of the bone are called
A)endosteums.
B)diaphyses.
C)epiphyses.
D)perforating fibers.
E)trabeculae.
16

Which of these substances is present in the largest quantity in bone?
A)collagen
B)hydroxyapatite
C)proteoglycan aggregates
D)lacunae cartilage
17

Hydrogen ions are pumped across the ruffled border, producing an acid environment. This describes the activity of
A)osteoblasts.
B)osteocytes.
C)osteoclasts.
18

__________ are stem cells that have the ability to become osteoblasts or chondroblasts.
A)Osteocytes
B)Osteoclasts
C)Osteoprogenitor cells
D)Osteons
E)Chondrocytes
19

Given these cells: 1. osteoblasts 2. osteocytes 3. osteoprogenitor cells Which of these sequences represents the order in which they are produced?
A)1,2,3
B)1,3,2
C)2,1,3
D)2,3,1
E)3,1,2
20

Fetal bone tissue that has collagen fibers randomly oriented in many directions is
A)lamellar bone.
B)long bone.
C)short bone.
D)woven bone.
21

Which of these structures is found in compact bone, but not in cancellous bone?
A)osteoclasts
B)canaliculi
C)lamellae
D)central (haversian) canals
E)osteocytes
22

Cancellous bone
A)has no osteocytes.
B)is located in the diaphyses of long bones.
C)is composed of delicate interconnecting rods or plates called trabeculae.
D)does not contain marrow.
E)forms the outer surface of most bones other than long bones.
23

Which of these structures is found within an osteon?
A)concentric lamella
B)interstitial lamella
C)circumferential lamella
D)periosteum
E)all of these
24

Given these passageways:

1. canaliculi
2. central (haversian) canal
3. blood vessels in periosteum
4. perforating (Volkmann's) canal

Which of these represents the correct order as nutrients pass from outside the bone to the osteocytes?
A)1,2,3,4
B)2,4,1,3
C)3,4,2,1
D)3,1,4,2
E)4,3,2,1
25

Which of these bones is produced at least partly by intramembranous ossification?
A)clavicle
B)frontal
C)mandible
D)parietal
E)all of these
26

Intramembranous ossification is usually complete by __________ years of age, whereas endochondral ossification is usually complete by __________ years of age.
A)2, 25
B)5, 10
C)10,2
D)10, 25
E)25, 5
27

Membrane-covered spaces between developing skull bones are called
A)centers of ossification.
B)central canals.
C)fontanels.
D)perforating canals.
E)endochondral openings.
28

Endochondral ossification
A)occurs primarily in the bones of the skull.
B)involves calcification of the cartilage matrix.
C)produces bone in connective tissue membranes.
D)occurs when chondrocytes replace osteoblasts in the matrix.
29

Secondary ossification centers
A)are located in the diaphysis of the bone.
B)are located in the epiphysis of the bone.
C)are located in the fontanels.
D)appear during early fetal development.
E)are locations for intramembranous ossification.
30

In endochondral ossification, the perichondrium that surrounded the hyaline cartilage becomes
A)circumferential lamellae.
B)osteons.
C)lacunae.
D)perforating canals.
E)periosteum.
31

Given these zones within the epiphyseal plate:
1. zone of calcification
2. zone of hypertrophy
3. zone of proliferation
4. zone of resting cartilage
Arrange them in the correct order, from the epiphysis to the diaphysis.
A)1,2,3,4
B)1,3,4,2
C)2,4,1,3
D)3,2,1,4
E)4,3,2,1
32

Growth in the length of a long bone stops when
A)the articular cartilage becomes completely ossified.
B)the epiphyseal plate becomes completely ossified.
C)appositional growth at the periosteum stops.
D)intramembranous ossification is complete.
33

Which type of bone growth is responsible for an increase in the diameter of bones?
A)appositional growth
B)interstitial growth
C)endochondral growth
D)trabecular growth
E)intramembranous growth
34

Which of these statements concerning bone growth are correct?
A)Increased amounts of testosterone and estrogen cause a rapid increase in bone growth.
B)Testosterone and estrogen prevent ossification of the epiphyseal plate.
C)Too little growth hormone can cause a condition called acromegaly.
D)Too much growth hormone can cause dwarfism.
E)Achondroplastic dwarfism is caused by too much thyroid hormone.
35

Osteomalacia can occur as a result of a
A)vitamin C deficiency.
B)vitamin D deficiency.
C)lack of thyroid hormone.
D)lack of growth hormone.
E)lack of sex hormones.
36

A deficiency of vitamin C in the diet can result in
A)decreased collagen synthesis.
B)scurvy.
C)poor wound healing.
D)growth retardation in children.
E)all of these
37

Arrange the following events in the correct order of occurrence after a bone is broken.

1. osteoblasts produce ossification
2. hematoma formation
3. internal fibrocartilage callus and external bone-cartilage callus formation
4. woven bone is remodeled to form compact bone
A)1,2,3,4
B)2,3,4,1
C)2,3,1,4
D)2,4,1,3
E)2,4,3,1
38

PTH is secreted from the __________ , whereas calcitonin is secreted from the __________ .
A)thyroid gland, pancreas
B)thyroid gland, parathyroid gland
C)pancreas, pituitary
D)parathyroid gland, thyroid gland
E)adrenal gland, thyroid gland
39

Parathyroid hormone causes
A)increased chondroblast activity.
B)increased bone breakdown.
C)decreased blood calcium levels.
D)increased calcium lost in the urine.
E)all of these
40

Which of these disorders is caused by a bacterium?
A)acromegaly
B)osteogenesis imperfecta
C)osteomalacia
D)osteomyelitis
E)osteoporosis