The Nature of Deviance
In all societies the behavior of some people at times goes beyond that permitted
by the norms. Social life is characterized not only by conformity but by deviance,
behavior that a considerable number of people view as reprehensible and beyond
the limits of tolerance.
Social Properties of Deviance.
Deviance is not a property inherent in certain forms of behavior; it
is a property conferred upon particular behaviors by social definitions. Definitions
as to which acts are deviant vary greatly from time to time, place to place,
and group to group. We typically find that norms are not so much a point or
a line but a zone. Deviant acts also can be redefined, as has happened in recent
years in the United States. Most societies can absorb a good deal of deviance
without serious consequences, but persistent and widespread deviance can be
dysfunctional. But deviance may also be functional by promoting social solidarity,
clarifying norms, strengthening group allegiances, and providing a catalyst
Social Control and Deviance.
Societies seek to ensure that their members conform with basic norms
by means of social control. Three main types of social control processes
operate within social life: (1) those that lead us to internalize our society's
normative expectations (internalization),
(2) those that structure our world of social experience, and (3) those that
employ various formal and informal social sanctions.
Theories of Deviance
Other disciplines are concerned with deviance, particularly biology and psychology.
Sociologists focus on five main theories.
Anomie Theory. Émile Durkheim contributed
to our understanding of deviance with his idea of anomie. Robert K. Merton
built on Durkheim's ideas of anomie and social cohesion. According to his theory
of structural strain, deviance derives from societal stresses.
Cultural Transmission Theory.
A number of sociologists have emphasized the similarities between the
way deviant behavior is acquired and the way in which other behavior is acquired-the
cultural transmission theory. Edwin H. Sutherland elaborated on this notion
in his theory of differential association. He said that individuals become
deviant to the extent to which they participate in settings where deviant ideas,
motivations, and techniques are viewed favorably.
Conflict Theory. Conflict theorists ask, "Which
group will be able to translate its values into the rules of a society and make
these rules stick?" and "Who reaps the lion's share of benefits from
particular social arrangements?" Marxist sociologists see crime as a product
of capitalist laws.
Labeling Theory. Labeling theorists study the
processes whereby some individuals come to be tagged as deviants, begin to think
of themselves as deviants, and enter deviant careers. Labeling theorists differentiate
between primary deviance and secondary deviance.
Control Theory. Control theory attempts to explain
not why people deviate but why people do not deviate. Travis Hirschi
argued that young people are more likely to conform if their bond to society
is strong. This bond has four parts: attachment, involvement, commitment, and
Crime and the Criminal Justice System
Crime is an act of deviance that is prohibited by law. The distinguishing
property of crime is that people who violate the law are liable to be arrested,
tried, pronounced guilty, and deprived of their lives, liberty, or property.
It is the state that defines crime by the laws it promulgates, administers,
Forms of Crime. An infinite variety of acts can
be crimes. Federal agencies keep records on index crimesviolent
crimes against people and crimes against property. Juvenile crime is crime
committed by youth under the age of 18. Organized crime is carried
out by large-scale bureaucratic organizations that provide illegal goods
and services in public demand. White-collar crime is crime committed
by relatively affluent persons, often in the course of business activities.
Crime can be committed by corporations and by governments. In victimless
crime no one involved is considered a victim.
Measuring Crime. Statistics on crime are among
the most unsatisfactory of all social data. A large proportion of the crimes
that are committed go undetected; others are detected but not reported;
and still others are reported but not officially recorded.
Drugs and Crime. Drugs and crime are related both
directlyselling, using, and possessing illegal drugs all are crimesand
indirectlydrug involvement often leads to other sorts of crimes. Drug
problems can be dealt with by recognizing that addiction is a brain disease.
Other approaches include continued prohibition, depenalization, or legalization.
Women and Crime. A growing percentage of youth
and adults in the criminal population is female. One-quarter of the youth
arrested in the United States are girls; overall, one in five arrests are
female. Girls are more likely than boys to be arrested for such offenses
as running away from home.
The Criminal Justice System. The criminal justice
system is made up of the reactive agencies of the state that include
the police, the courts, and prisons. Of every 100 felonies committed within
the United States, only 36 are reported to the police. Of that 36, only
7 or 8 are cleared by arrest. Of those 7 who are arrested, only 5 are prosecuted
and convicted. Only 1 is sent to prison.
The Purposes of Imprisonment.
There have been four traditional purposes of imprisonment: punishment,
rehabilitation, deterrence, and selective confinement.