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Music: An Appreciation: An Appreciation, Brief 4/e
Roger Kamien, Hebrew University

Elements
Sound, Pitch, Dynamics, and Tone Color

Web Resources

Sound, Pitch, Dynamics and Tone Color

http://www.muc.edu/~miskeljp/intro/Materials/Materials.html

A helpful on line appendix of many terms associated with sound, pitch, dynamics and tone color. The site contains sound file examples from classic and great works, illustrative of key terms, which can be uploaded. Additionally, examples of basic rhythmic concepts, including syncopation, are playable from the screen.

Another valuable resource related to this site is http://www.muc.edu/~miskeljp/intro/kamien/1/1.htm. This Appendix provides examples and definitions for key terms related to the elements of music.

Sound Wave Fundamentals

http://csgrad.cs.vt.edu/~chin/fundamentals.html

Basic concepts relating to the theory of sound--including speed, displacement, interference, intensity and the doppler effect, are presented at this site. Each concept is introduced with helpful visuals, as well as representative sound file examples.

The Physics Classroom

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/sound/u11l2a.html

Sound theory, sound properties and human sound perception, are succinctly presented at this site, with simple animations employed as example easily readable from most browsers.

Digital Oscilloscope

http://polly.phys.msu.su/~zeld/oscill.html

This is a free digital oscilloscope, which can be easily uploaded for use on a PC computer.

Lohengrin

http://rick.stanford.edu/opera/Wagner/Lohengrin/main.html

This site contains a synopsis of the musical piece.

Wagner on the Web: Reflections on Lohengrin, by Mark Twain

http://www.zazz.com/wagner/marktwain.html

Excerpts from Mark Twain's experiences at a European performance of Lohengrin, written in his book, "a Tramp Abroad," are included here.

Duke Ellington at Jazz Web

http://www.wnur.org/jazz/artists/ellington.duke/

On line resources available for the life and times of Duke Ellington.

Questions-- Using the Websites provided above, answer the following questions



1

Define a sound wave, and describe the range of human hearing.
2

What is an Oscilloscope?
3

Describe the mechanics of human hearing.
4

Review the synopis of Wagner's Lohengrin, and the remarks concerning Twain's experience of the performance he attended in Germany at the Websites presented above. Given what you have learned here and elsewhere, do you think you would enjoy the piece? How do you think your reaction to seeing or hearing a performance of this piece would compare to Twain's, given your musical and cultural preferences?
5

Using the material on Duke Ellington at the website above, describe aspects of his life you regard as interesting or significant.