Which of the following was NOT one of he three unifying elements that held together the Roman Empire? A) The figure of the emperor. B) The civil bureaucracy. C) The army. D) The priesthood.
None of the Julio-Claudian emperors after Augustus were particularly distinguished, but they managed to A) add extensive territories in the East. B) preserve the empire in peace. C) recast provincial administration. D) restore power to the Senate.
A key to stability during the reign of the "Five Good Emperors" was their practice of A) involving the Praetorian Guard in the process of picking a successor. B) insisting that the eldest son should succeed an emperor upon his death. C) allowing the Senate to elect their successor before their death. D) adopting a well qualified leader as their son and successor.
During the late Republic and early Empire, the economy was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A) extraordinary prosperity. B) the growth of towns in the West to rival those of the East. C) the growth of commercial estates in place of small farms in Italy. D) the growth of provincial areas in competition with Italy.
All of the following characterized society in the first centuries of the Roman Empire EXCEPT A) exceptionally high living standards for the upper classes. B) conditions for the urban workers far below those of the peasantry. C) considerable social mobility. D) a huge population dependent on public allotments of grain.
Permanent Roman contributions to Western Civilization included all of the following EXCEPT A) a rich and complex system of civil law. B) the extension of literature to the lower classes. C) the use of arches and vault on a large scale. D) a system of roads across Western Europe.
All of the following contributed to the period of crisis from 192 to 284 EXCEPT A) economic decline. B) debilitating wars along the frontiers. C) the rise of Christianity. D) the decline of efficient administration.
Which of the following did the Roman slave system accomplish? A) It provided a reliable work force with strong incentives to work hard. B) It promoted technological innovation to replace human power with machinery. C) It permitted a calculated use of labor in relation to land and capital. D) It insured a reliable flow of replacement workers for the aging and the dead.
The government tried to reverse rural depopulation by all of the following EXCEPT A) allowing foreigners to settle on unused land within the Empire. B) attracting free Romans from the cities by offering land on good terms. C) freeing large numbers of slaves and granting them farmsteads. D) prohibiting farmers and their children from leaving their farm.
Diocletian restored the stability of the Empire by doing all of the following EXCEPT A) converting to Christianity. B) sharing power with three other rulers. C) establishing an authoritarian bureaucracy. D) strengthening the tax system.
By the end of Constantine's rule, all of the following were true EXCEPT A) the capital had been moved to Byzantium, which came to be known as Constantinople. B) the Roman army had ceased to be an effective force, since repeated defeats demoralized it. C) the economy had become virtually stagnant, as the state tried to force people to produce. D) government had become remote from the people, with the emperor insulated even from the court.
All of the following are reasons given for the fall of the Western Empire EXCEPT A) economic decline caused by the decline of trade and a labor shortage. B) social decay caused by governmental regulation of productive people and support of unproductive ones. C) cultural disillusionment as Romans satisfied with traditional religion rejected official Christianity. D) geographic conditions that made it easier for invaders to move into the West than the East.
Christianity differed from all of the mystery religions because it A) held out the promise of a blessed afterlife. B) held its teachings to be a greater mystery than theirs. C) involved initiation rites leading to an ecstatic experience of God. D) called on its adherence to practice love and justice in their daily lives.
The Jewish factions included all of the following EXCEPT A) the Sadducees, formed of the landed aristocracy and the high priests. B) the Pharisees, who were pious middle-class lay people. C) the Essenes, ascetic priests who settled at Qumran. D) the Eleusians, poor farmers awaiting the Messiah.
St. Paul's critical contribution to Christianity was A) to end Jewish participation in the persecution of Christians. B) to convert his fellow Pharisee to Christianity. C) to show that Christianity was a direct continuation of Jewish traditions. D) to open the religion to Gentiles as well as Jews.
The development of Church government was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A) the gradual exclusion of women. B) the steady strengthening of the power of bishops. C) creation of a resilient institutional structure. D) increasing exclusiveness towards potential converts.
The adoption of Christianity as the Empire's official religion resulted in A) the use of government repression against the Church's opponents. B) the end to all persecution of religions by the government. C) a civil war between adherents of the old religion and the new. D) the rapid collapse of the Western Empire.
The chief value of heresies to Christianity was that they A) created alternative forms of the religion that helped it appeal to a broad range of people. B) forced it to define its doctrines ever more clearly. C) drew off people whose lacked a genuine commitment to the religion. D) encouraged Christians to practice love and tolerance toward each other.
The relationship between Christianity and pagan Classical culture was that A) Christians rejected any attempt to make use of pagan texts. B) Classical paganism gradually eroded belief in Christian revelation. C) pagans refused to allow Christians to utilize their educational materials. D) Christians used pagan texts as educational tools, thereby preserving them.
The Church fathers were important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A) they produced commentaries and histories that were models for future generations. B) they refined the text of the Scriptures in light of the original Hebrew and translated them into Latin. C) they accommodated the teachings of Christian morality to peoples' natural urges for sex and comfort. D) they established the doctrine that the church was in spiritual matters above the government.