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Essentials of Psychology
Benjamin B Lahey, University of Chicago

Basic Principles of Learning

Multiple Choice Quiz



1

Which of the following is/are part of the definition of learning?
A)change in behavior
B)relatively permanent
C)brought about by experience
D)all of the above
2

Pavlov's initial interest in classical conditioning was stimulated when he observed his research dogs salivating at the sight of
A)food
B)the attendants
C)saliva
D)the food dish
3

In classical conditioning, an unlearned, inborn reaction to an unconditioned stimulus is a(n)
A)unconditioned stimulus
B)conditioned stimulus
C)unconditioned response
D)conditioned response
4

In Pavlov's classic experiment, meat powder was the
A)unconditioned stimulus
B)unconditioned response
C)conditioned stimulus
D)conditioned response
5

Classical conditioning apparently plays a role in the development of
A)resistance to disease
B)allergic reactions
C)sexual arousal
D)all of the above
6

Irrational fears that are thought to be caused by classical conditioning are called
A)psychosomatic illnesses
B)avoidance behaviors
C)phobias
D)stimulus discrimination
7

Learning that results from the consequences of behaviors is called
A)extinguished conditioning
B)operant conditioning
C)classical conditioning
D)positive conditioning
8

If positive reinforcement is not given within a short time following the response, learning will proceed slowly. This phenomenon is called
A)delay of reinforcement
B)extinction
C)conditioned response
D)consistency
9

Jill was trying to operantly condition her dog to roll over. Each time her dog rolled over she immediately said "good dog." However, the dog did not roll over on command. Which of the following may best explain why?
A)Jill used inconsistent reinforcement
B)the CS did not match the CR
C)Jill should have delayed reinforcement
D)saying "good dog" was not reinforcing to her dog
10

Reinforcers that are innately reinforcing, such as food, water, and warmth are called
A)primary reinforcers
B)secondary reinforcers
C)extinguished reinforcers
D)superstitious reinforcers
11

If a child is rewarded for appropriate behavior every 15 minutes, what type of schedule is being used?
A)fixed ratio
B)variable ratio
C)fixed interval
D)variable interval
12

Salespeople who are paid exclusively by commission are reinforced on which type of schedule?
A)fixed ratio
B)fixed interval
C)variable ratio
D)variable interval
13

If you wanted to teach a chicken to "play" the piano, you should
A)wait for a musically inclined chicken to show up
B)extinguish piano-playing behavior
C)use shaping
D)use negative reinforcement
14

Behavior that is reinforced because it causes a negative event to stop is called
A)shaping
B)punishment
C)escape conditioning
D)avoidance conditioning
15

Both escape conditioning and avoidance conditioning are forms of
A)superstitious behavior
B)positive reinforcement
C)negative reinforcement
D)secondary reinforcement
16

Which of the following is suggested as a guideline for the use of punishment?
A)Do not use physical punishment
B)Do not give punishment mixed with rewards
C)Make it clear to the individual which behavior is being punished
D)all of the above
17

If the consequence of a behavior is negative and the frequency of that behavior decreases, the behavior has been
A)positively reinforced
B)negatively reinforced
C)disinhibited
D)punished
18

Which of the following is correct?
A)Classical conditioning usually involves reflexive behavior, while operant conditioning usually involves more complicated, spontaneous behavior.
B)Classical conditioning usually involves more complicated, spontaneous behavior, while operant conditioning involves reflexive behavior.
C)In classical conditioning, the reinforcement is contingent on the behavior of the learner.
D)In operant conditioning the UCS and CS occur independently of the learner's behavior.
19

John loves to receive mail. Over the years, he has learned to tell the difference between the sound of the mail truck and the other cars and trucks that pass his house. What process is at work here?
A)stimulus discrimination
B)stimulus generalization
C)extinction
D)negative reinforcement
20

After Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, he also displayed fear responses to a white rabbit and a white coat. This is an example of
A)stimulus generalization
B)stimulus discrimination
C)variable interval reinforcement
D)superstitious behavior
21

When Sandy's disruptive classroom behavior stops because the teacher and other students no longer pay attention to the behavior, the process is called
A)stimulus discrimination
B)extinction
C)stimulus generalization
D)punishment
22

Behaviors that have been reinforced on a variable schedule are more difficult to extinguish than those that have been continuously reinforced. This is known as
A)the partial reinforcement effect
B)an extinction schedule
C)shaping
D)avoidance conditioning
23

The most difficult responses of all to extinguish are those learned through
A)positive reinforcement
B)variable schedules
C)escape conditioning
D)avoidance conditioning
24

Behaviors that appear to be extinguished may return when some dramatic, but unrelated, stimulus event occurs. This is called
A)spontaneous recovery
B)stimulus generalization
C)stimulus discrimination
D)external disinhibition
25

What do spontaneous recovery and disinhibition have in common?
A)the UCS becomes neutral
B)the UCR is diminished
C)an extinguished response returns
D)a response is generalized
26

The neural-connection view of learning is supported by which of the following?
A)place learning
B)latent learning
C)insight learning
D)none of the above
27

Köhler's research with Sultan supports which theoretical view of learning?
A)insight learning
B)latent learning
C)place learning
D)modeling
28

Learning to learn insightfully is a characteristic of
A)latent learning
B)place learning
C)learning sets
D)modeling
29

Those who are concerned about the effects that televised aggression has on children are likely to focus on
A)insight learning
B)latent learning
C)place learning
D)modeling
30

Modeling demonstrates the importance of ________ in learning.
A)secondary reinforcers
B)biological factors
C)preparedness
D)cognition
31

Learned taste aversion is a form of
A)operant conditioning
B)classical conditioning
C)insight learning
D)none of the above
32

The fact that fish cannot fly and owls cannot learn to swim is an indication of
A)lack of adequate reinforcement
B)their lack of experience
C)the laziness of these creatures
D)the effects of biological limits