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Essentials of Psychology
Benjamin B Lahey, University of Chicago

Motivation and Emotion

Multiple Choice Quiz



1

An internal state or condition that activates and gives direction to our thoughts is called
A)motivation
B)emotion
C)aggression
D)all of the above
2

Homeostatic mechanisms are involved in
A)drinking
B)eating
C)maintaining body temperature
D)all of the above
3

Each of the following is a primary motive except
A)hunger
B)thirst
C)avoidance of pain
D)desire to be competent
4

Hyperphagic rats are the result of
A)surgically destroyed satiety centers in the hypothalamus
B)surgically destroyed feeding centers in the hypothalamus
C)artificially raised blood sugar levels
D)blood fat levels that have been lowered
5

Each of the following is a cue that helps the hypothalamus regulate eating except
A)stomach contractions
B)blood sugar levels
C)red blood cell levels
D)body fat levels
6

According to the text, which of the following is a psychological factor in hunger?
A)incentives
B)learning
C)anxiety
D)all of the above
7

Each of the following is a cue in regulating drinking except
A)mouth dryness
B)cell fluid levels
C)blood sugar levels
D)total blood volume
8

What happens when cell fluid levels in the body decrease?
A)sodium salts draw water out of cells
B)the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to secrete ADH
C)the hypothalamus signals the cerebral cortex to initiate a search for liquids
D)all of the above
9

The general preference among humans to be with others is called the
A)affiliation motive
B)need for achievement
C)need for self-actualization
D)group motive
10

According to Elliot and Church, the key elements in achievement motivation include each of the following except
A)mastery goals
B)achievement goals
C)performance-approach goals
D)performance-avoidance goals
11

According to Schachter, when subjects are anxious, their need to affiliate with others
A)increases
B)decreases
C)virtually disappears
D)is not changed
12

An effective performance is more likely if the level of arousal is suitable for the activity, according to the
A)optimal level of arousal
B)performance-arousal model
C)Yerkes-Dodson law
D)James-Lange theory of motivation
13

Arousal is linked to what brain structures?
A)the amygdala
B)the reticular formation
C)the sympathetic nervous system
D)b and c above
14

If a young businesswoman is concerned about the impact of having a great career and how the career might affect later romantic relationships, she could be typified as having
A)high extrinsic motivation
B)fear of failure
C)low need for achievement
D)a fear of success
15

High levels of fear of success were correlated with high
A)extrinsic motivation
B)fear of failure
C)self-esteem
D)self-actualization
16

Many first-generation college students are perceived by their friends and family as
A)moving into a new social class
B)overly ambitious
C)intrinsically motivated
D)self-actualized
17

People who donate anonymously to charity are probably motivated by
A)intrinsic motivation
B)extrinsic motivation
C)biological motivation
D)affective habituation
18

If an individual is already intrinsically motivated to perform an activity, adding an extrinsic reward will probably
A)sharply increase the intrinsic motivation
B)increase both the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
C)decrease the intrinsic motivation
D)none of the above
19

In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which needs must be met before all other needs?
A)self-actualization
B)safety
C)self-esteem
D)biological
20

According to Maslow, the highest motive people can experience is
A)biological
B)intellectual
C)self-esteem
D)self-actualization
21

According to the text, each of the following is a component of the definition of emotion except
A)a stimulus situation that provokes the reaction
B)a positively or negatively toned conscious experience
C)physiological arousal
D)a deep-seated unconscious response
22

According to Watson and Tellegen's emotional map, all human emotions can be thought of as different combinations of what?
A)love and hate
B)happiness and sadness
C)positive and negative emotions
D)arousal and experience
23

Which two intense negative emotions are close together on the Watson and Tellegen emotional map?
A)happy and sluggish
B)surprised and relaxed
C)fearful and angry
D)happy and sad
24

Information from a stimulus travels first to the ______, where it can be interpreted and experienced.
A)limbic system
B)cerebral cortex
C)autonomic nervous system
D)hippocampus
25

Schachter and Singer believe that emotional arousal is
A)diffuse and specific to the different emotions.
B)diffuse and not specific to the different emotions.
C)concentrated and specific to the different emotions.
D)concentrated and not specific to the different emotions.
26

Most psychologists believe that at least the most basic emotions are
A)learned primarily through social experiences.
B)learned primarily from parents.
C)inborn and do not have to be learned.
D)different from culture to culture.
27

Which of the following processes may influence the role of learning in our emotions?
A)modeling
B)reinforcement
C)classical conditioning
D)all of the above
28

By studying different cultures, psychologists have concluded that learning influences
A)the development of basic emotions
B)do not affect the interpretation of emotions
C)have had no effect on how emotions are displayed
D)the expression of emotions
29

Which of the following is true regarding the roles of learning and culture on emotions?
A)Learning and culture play minimal roles, since all emotions are genetic
B)Cultural learning influences the expression of emotions
C)Learning affects our emotional reactions to various stimuli
D)b and c above
30

Which explanation of aggression involves the process of catharsis?
A)Freud's instinct theory
B)the frustration-aggression hypothesis
C)social learning theory
D)social learning theory
31

According to the frustration-aggression hypothesis, aggression is a natural reaction to
A)frustration
B)pain
C)heat
D)all of the above
32

Which of the following correctly summarizes the positions taken on televised violence?
A)Both the social learning and Freudian positions favor televised aggression as an outlet for people
B)Neither the social learning nor the Freudian positions view televised aggression favorably
C)The social learning theorists opposed televised aggression, while the Freudians view it as catharsis
D)The social learning theorists favor televised aggression while the Freudians oppose it
33

Bandura's research on violence supports what type of explanation?
A)Freudian
B)genetic
C)social learning
D)all of the above
34

According to the text, yo-yo dieting is
A)a reasonable way to lose a lot of weight quickly
B)effective because it moves the body's metabolism up and down
C)self-defeating and leads to a slowed metabolism
D)linked to anorexia nervosa
35

According to the text, regular exercise is advantageous when dieting because it
A)can burn calories
B)helps the metabolism to fall while you are dieting
C)helps keep the metabolism from falling
D)a and c above