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Laboratory Studies in Integrated Principles of Zoology, 12/e
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Book Preface


Laboratory Studies in Integrated Principles of Zoology offers students hands-on experience in learning about the diversity of life. It provides students the opportunity to become acquainted with the principal groups of animals and to recognize the unique anatomical features that characterize each group as well as the patterns that link animal groups to each other. Although this manual was written to accompany Integrated Principles of Zoology, it can easily be adapted to use with any other introductory zoology text and with a variety of course plans. Every effort has been made to provide clear instructions and enough background material to create interest and an understanding of the subject matter. Many illustrations complement the written word.

Distinctive Features in the Twelfth Edition
  • Project exercises are placed with certain chapters, within sections entitled "Experimenting in Zoology." Two project exercises use molecular techniques to explore questions that are important to our understanding of zoology and evolution. Some of these exercises can be completed within a single laboratory period; others are followed for a longer period. In all project exercises the student follows experimental procedures, records and analyzes quantitative data, and draws conclusions from the results. Many instructors will want their students to gain additional experience by writing a laboratory report in which the student states the objectives, methods followed, results obtained, and conclusions that can be drawn from the results. The Experimenting in Zoology exercises are: Genetic Polymorphism in Tetrahymena (Exercise 6); Effect of Temperature on the Locomotor Activity of Stentor (Exercise 6); Regeneration in Planaria (Exercise 9); Behavior of the Medicinal Leech, Hirudo medicinalis (Exercise 12); PhototacticBehavior of Daphnia (Exercise 14); Aggression in Paradise Fish, Macropodus opercularis (Exercise 18); Analysis of the Multiple Hemoglobin System in Carassius auratus, the Common Goldfish (Exercise 18).

  • Exercises have been made more interactive, with questions placed throughout the text and with spaces provided for students to write down their responses and observations. This "active learning" approach involves students in the exercise and encourages them to think about the information as they read. Some questions may require students to consult their textbook for the answers. In some exercises we have placed questions within the figure legends, to be answered in the spaces provided when the student consults the figure.

  • Several new and revised illustrations were prepared for this edition. Examples of new illustrations include earthworm mating (Figure 12-4) and the skeleton of the perch (Figure 18-10).

  • As with the previous edition we have included the derivation of specialized biological terms and genera where first introduced. This is an important assist to students in becoming familiar with the Latin and Greek roots from which technical terms are built. We repeatedly emphasize that the species is a binomial by spelling the complete species binomial in the classification breakdown for each representative species in the exercises.

  • There are many aids for the student in this laboratory manual. Throughout the exercises, working instructions are clearly set off from the descriptive material. Classifications, where appropriate, are included with the text, together with a "pie" diagram showing the relative sizes of the classes in a phylum. Function is explained along with anatomy. Topic headings help the student mentally organize the material. Metric tables and definitions are placed on the inside front and back covers for convenient use. Much of the artwork was designed to assist the student with difficult dissections.

  • Directions for preparing the exercises in this manual are found in Appendix A. For each exercise we have listed the materials required, directions for preparing solutions, suggestions for maintaining and working with living materials, suggestions for demonstrations, and a listing of appropriate references, most of which are annotated. This information is convenient to the instructor as well as to students who may later wish to consult or implement an exercise.

  • This manual's website contains an interactive exercise on cladistics called "Taxonomic Classification and Phylogenetic Trees." This exercise, prepared by Louise Wootton of Georgian Court College, leads the student through the construction of a dichotomous key and the construction of cladograms, and will be particularly useful as a supplement to Exercise 5 in this manual.

  • Exercises present in previous editions of the manual, but removed from the present edition, can be found at our zoology web site and are available to any instructor who wishes to use them. These include an exercise on cell function (Exercise 3 in the 9th edition) and nine exercises on physiology and genetics (Exercises 24-27 in the 8th edition). To access these exercises, visit the textbook's website at (just click on this book's title).

Instructors and students will find useful tools for their zoology laboratory sessions by visiting the custom website for this lab manual. In addition to 11 additional laboratory exercises, the website contains an interactive exercise in cladistics using a dichotomous key, information on narcotizing and preservation methods, a how-to guide for constructing aquariums and terrariums, and additional information. Go to and click on this manual's title to access the website.

Digital Zoology Version 2.0 Interactive CD-ROM and Student Workbook by Jon Houseman is an interactive guide to the specimens and materials covered in zoology laboratory and lecture sessions. Laboratory modules contain illustrations, photographs, annotations of the major structures of organisms, interactive quizzes, and over 70 video clips of animal diversity, habitats, and behaviors. Interactive cladograms within lab modules provide links to interactive synapomorphies of the various animal groups. Key terms throughout the program link to an interactive glossary of over 750 definitions. This CD-ROM is the perfect student study tool to promote learning both in and outside of the zoology laboratory, and also comes with an accompanying student workbook and website to provide additional study tips, exercises, and phyla characteristics.

For instructors, the Digital Zoology website contains PowerPoint slides with cladograms and dendrograms illustrating the relationship between the different major taxa, as well as many additional images to show the diversity of each group. A test bank, sorted by taxonomic group, is also provided on the website. In addition, instructors will have access to McGraw-Hill's Teaching Animal Molecular Phylogenetics website. Contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative for details on how you can package Digital Zoology Version 2.0 CD-ROM and Student Workbook to go with your zoology laboratory manual.

The Zoology Essential Study Partner CD-ROM is an interactive student study tool that features activities, animations, drag-and-drop exercises, self-testing tools, full-color art and graphs, and more, and can be packaged to go with any McGraw-Hill zoology title. For further details, contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative.

PageOut provides the solution to instructors who need a course website. More than 35,000 professors have chosen PageOut to create their course website. Their feedback has led to a powerful new Third Release 3.0 of PageOut. New features have been added based on customer feedback:
  • The PageOut Library offers instant access to fully-loaded course websites with no work required on your part.

  • Courses can now be password-protected.

  • Instructors can now upload, store, and manage up to 10MB of data.

  • Instructors can copy their course and share it with colleagues or use it as a foundation for next semester.

  • Short on time? Let McGraw-Hill do the work. Learn more about PageOut and other McGraw-Hill digital solutions at

We are indebted to the reviewers whose many suggestions were essential in guiding our revision for this edition.

Joseph W. Goy, Harding University
Teresa A. Porter, Salem College
Connie P. Russell, Angelo State University
Susan W. Warren, Connecticut College
Dawn S. Wilson, California State University-Chico

We especially thank Louise Wootton, who contributed to Exercise 6: Protozoan Groups in this edition of the manual. In addition, we express our thanks to Nathan Watts, Nathan Woolsey, Ryan Ferrer, and Cisco Sanchaz-Navarro, who assisted Lee Kats with portions of the revision.

The authors express their appreciation to the editors and support staff at McGraw-Hill Higher Education who guided this revision and were a pleasure to work with. Special thanks are due Marge Kemp, Publisher, and Donna Nemmers, Senior Developmental Editor, who guided this manual throughout its development. Mary Powers, Senior Project Manager, somehow kept authors, text, art, and production programs on schedule. Others who played key roles and to whom we express our gratitude are Deb DeBord, who copyedited the manuscript and John Leland, who oversaw the extensive photographic program. We are indebted to them for their talents and dedication.

Although we make every effort to bring to you an error-free manual, errors of many kinds inevitably find their way into a book of this scope and complexity. We will be grateful to readers who have comments or suggestions concerning content to send their remarks to Fran Schreiber, Developmental Editor, McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2460 Kerper Boulevard, Dubuque, IA 52001. Fran may also be contacted by e-mail:, or through this textbook's website: (click on this book's title).