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Simple Multiple Choice
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1
Although different in many ways, the endocrine and nervous systems often work together to bring about
A)neurotransmitter release
B)homeostasis
C)rapid reactions
D)metabolic changes
2
The word root hormao, as used in "hormone," most nearly means
A)blood borne
B)a message
C)to rouse
D)to nourish
3
Which adjective describes cells that can respond to a given hormone, as well as the organs that contain them?
A)receptor
B)sensitized
C)responsive
D)target
4
Each cell's sensitivity to a hormone is determined by the presence or absence of the necessary ____________ on the cell surface or in the cytoplasm.
A)trigger
B)cytokine
C)receptor
D)attractant
5
Hormonal effects that persist for days or weeks make the endocrine system particularly effective in
A)responding to localized needs of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
B)producing widespread, gradual effects such as growth and development
C)conveying information to the CNS and to muscle and gland cells
D)making immediate adjustments in response to ambient conditions
6
Which one of the following does not characterize the endocrine system?
A)short-term responses that terminate with removal of stimuli
B)relatively slow reaction times (seconds to minutes to hours)
C)typically widespread, general effects throughout the body
D)slow return to pre-stimulation levels of activity
7
Based on chemical structure, hormones are classified as
A)biogenic amines, carbide hormones, and protein hormones
B)peptide derivatives, carboxylic acid derivatives, and proteins
C)carboxylic acid derivatives, biogenic amines, and proteins
D)peptide hormones, steroid hormones, and biogenic amines
8
Most of our body's hormones are
A)biogenic amines
B)steroid hormones
C)peptide hormones
D)protein hormones
9
Regulatory hormones from the hypothalamus directly influence the ____________ gland's secretory activity.
A)pineal
B)thyroid
C)posterior pituitary
D)anterior pituitary
10
Which of the following is not an anterior pituitary hormone?
A)growth hormone
B)melatonin
C)prolactin
D)adrenocorticotropic hormone
11
What are the two gonadotropins secreted by the anterior pituitary?
A)GH and PRL
B)TSH and ACTH
C)FSH and LH
D)MSH and OT
12
The hypothalamus transports two hormones to the ____________ for storage and subsequent release.
A)posterior pituitary
B)anterior pituitary
C)paraventricular nucleus
D)supraoptic nucleus
13
Which hormone stimulates milk ejection from the mammary glands by means of a positive feedback loop?
A)secretin
B)estrogen
C)prolactin
D)oxytocin
14
All of the following are true of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) except
A)released when body is dehydrated
B)increases water retention from kidney tubules
C)causes dilation of peripheral blood vessels
D)results in increased blood pressure
15
Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are the two forms of which hormone?
A)parathyroid hormone
B)thymosin
C)calcitonin
D)thyroid hormone
16
Which hormone, produced by the thyroid gland's parafollicular cells, stimulates osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast activity?
A)thyroxine
B)calcitonin
C)thyroglobulin
D)thymosin
17
Ultimately, hormonal secretion by the ____________ raises calcium levels in the blood.
A)parathyroid glands
B)thyroid gland
C)pineal gland
D)adrenal medulla
18
The adrenal cortex has a distinctive yellow color because
A)it has a very limited blood supply and therefore lacks hemoglobin
B)its thick capsule is rich in yellowish elastic fibers
C)its cells store lipids used in producing steroid hormones
D)all of the above
19
The ____________ from the adrenal cortex are vital hormones; if the glands cannot function, these hormones must be supplemented throughout life.
A)tropic hormones
B)inhibiting hormones
C)gonadocorticoids
D)corticosteroids
20
Which hormones of the adrenal cortex stimulate metabolism of lipids and proteins, and help regulate blood sugar levels?
A)mineralocorticoids
B)glucocorticoids
C)gonadocorticoids
D)all of the above
21
The principal mineralocorticoid, which regulates the ratio of sodium and potassium ions in body fluids, is
A)aldosterone
B)corticosterone
C)cortisol
D)somatostatin
22
Although an endocrine structure, the ____________ is essentially a modified sympathetic ganglion.
A)thymus
B)pancreas
C)adrenal cortex
D)adrenal medulla
23
Which of the following correctly pairs a pancreatic islet cell with the hormone it secretes?
A)alpha cell, insulin
B)beta cell, pancreatic polypeptide
C)delta cell, somatostatin
D)F cell, glucagon
24
Which pancreatic hormone raises blood glucose levels?
A)insulin
B)glucagon
C)somatostatin
D)pancreatic polypeptide
25
Which endocrine gland is attached to the posterior region of the epithalamus?
A)pineal gland
B)parathyroid gland
C)anterior pituitary
D)posterior pituitary
26
Which endocrine organ is located in the mediastinum superior to the heart, just posterior to the sternum, and diminishes in size with age?
A)thyroid gland
B)thymus
C)pineal gland
D)adrenal gland
27
Which of the following is a kidney hormone that accelerates red blood cell production and maturation?
A)angiotensin II
B)renin
C)erythropoietin
D)calcitriol
28
The enzyme released by kidney cells that affects angiotensinogen is
A)renin
B)erythropoietin
C)calcitriol
D)inhibin
29
Which hormone is secreted by modified cardiac muscle cells in response to excessive stretch in the heart wall?
A)angiotensinogen
B)angiotensin I
C)vasopressin
D)atriopeptin
30
The testes produce male sex hormones called ____________, many of which are converted into testosterone.
A)estrogens
B)androgens
C)inhibins
D)gonadocorticoids







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