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Human Communication
Judy C. Pearson, North Dakota State University
Paul E. Nelson, North Dakota State University
Scott Titsworth, Ohio University, Athens
Lynn Harter, Ohio University, Athens


Glossary


action model  A depiction of communication as one person sending a message and another person or group of persons receiving it.
(See 21)
channel  The means by which a message moves from the source to the receiver of the message.
(See 181, 336)
code  A systematic arrangement of symbols used to create meanings in the mind of another person or persons.
(See 18)
communication  The process by which meaning is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior.
(See 10)
communication competence  The ability to effectively exchange meaning through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior.
(See 28)
constructivist model  A theory of communication which posits that receivers create their own reality in their minds.
(See 23)
context  A set of circumstances or a situation.
(See 23)
dialogue  The act of taking part in a conversation, discussion, or negotiation.
(See 14)
dyadic communication  Two-person communication.
(See 25)
feedback  The listener's verbal and nonverbal responses to the speaker and the speaker's message.
(See 18, 140, 336)
grammar  The rules of function in language.
(See 18)
interaction model  A depiction of communication as one person sending a message and a second person receiving the message and then responding with a return message.
(See 21)
interpersonal communication  The personal process of coordinating meaning between at least two people in a situation that allows mutual opportunities for both speaking and listening.
(See 25, 169)
intrapersonal communication  The process of understanding and sharing meaning within the self.
(See 24)
meaning  The shared understanding of the message constructed in the minds of the communicators.
(See 10)
noise  Any interference in the encoding and decoding processes that reduces message clarity.
(See 19)
nonverbal codes  All symbols that are not words, including bodily movements, use of space and time, clothing and adornments, and sounds other than words.
(See 18,107)
public communication  The process of generating meanings in a situation where a single source transmits a message to a number of receivers who give nonverbal and, sometimes, question-and-answer feedback.
(See 26)
receiver  A message target.
(See 16)
small-group communication  The interaction of a small group of people to achieve an interdependent goal.
(See 26, 269)
source  (1) A message initiator. (2) Someone who shares information, ideas, or attitudes with someone else.
(See 16, 335)
syntax  A set of rules about language that determines how words are arranged to form phrases and sentences.
(See 18, 75)
transaction model  A depiction of communication as communicators simultaneously sending and receiving messages.
(See 21)
verbal codes  Symbols and their grammatical arrangement, such as languages.
(See 18)
active perception  Perception in which our minds select, organize, and interpret that which we sense.
(See 39)
attribution  The assignment of meaning to people's behavior.
(See 51)
central tendency  The perceptual error of viewing everyone as average or neutral.
(See 55)
closure  The tendency to fill in missing information in order to complete an otherwise incomplete figure or statement.
(See 47)
co-culture  A group whose beliefs or behaviors distinguish it from the larger culture of which it is a part and with which it shares numerous similarities.
(See 42, 212)
confirmation  Feedback in which others treat us in a manner consistent with who we believe we are.
(See 60)
contrast effects  Comparison of people or their behavior with the characteristics or behavior of other people.
(See 55)
disconfirmation  Feedback in which others fail to respond to our notion of self by responding neutrally.
(See 60)
facework  Verbal and nonverbal strategies that are used to present one's own varying images to others and to help them maintain their own images.
(See 64)
figure  The focal point of a person's attention.
(See 46)
first impression  Our initial opinion about people upon meeting them.
(See 53)
fundamental attribution error  In judging other people, the tendency to attribute their successes to the situation and their failures to their personal characteristics.
(See 51)
ground  The background against which a person's focused attention occurs.
(See 46)
halo effect  A positive generalization of all attributes based on one attribute, which can be negative or positive.
(See 54)
high self-monitors  Individuals who are highly aware of their impression management behavior.
(See 64)
impression management  The control (or lack of control) of the communication of information through behavior.
(See 64)
interpretation  The process of assigning meaning to stimuli.
(See 49)
interpretive perception  Perception that involves a blend of internal states and external stimuli.
(See 49)
leniency  The consistent evaluation of people (or objects) in an overly positive manner.
(See 55)
low self-monitors  Individuals who communicate with others with little attention to the responses to their messages.
(See 64)
negative face  The desire to be free from constraint and imposition.
(See 64)
organization  The grouping of stimuli into meaningful units or wholes.
(See 46, 305)
passive perception  Perception in which people are simply recorders of stimuli.
(See 39)
perception  The process of becoming aware of objects and events from the senses.
(See 39)
perceptual constancy  The idea that our past experiences lead us to see the world in a way that is difficult to change; that is, our initial perceptions persist.
(See 41)
perceptual defense  A defense mechanism in which you ignore or minimize damaging or harmful information.
(See 54)
politeness  Our efforts to save face for others.
(See 65)
positive face  The desire to be liked and respected.
(See 64)
process  An activity, exchange, or set of behaviors that occur over time, e.g., in relationships.
(See 10)
projection  Our belief that others are fundamentally like us.
(See 54)
responsiveness  The idea that we tend to select our friends from people who demonstrate positive interest in us.
(See 181)
proximity  (1) The principle that objects which are physically close to each other will be perceived as a unit or group. (2) Term referring to location, distance, range between persons and things.
(See 48, 180)
recency  Assessment of a person at the current time on the basis of recollection of recent information.
(See 55)
reframing  Managing dialectics by transformation of needs so they are no longer regarded as opposites.
(See 176)
rejection  Feedback in which others treat us in a manner that is inconsistent with our self-definition.
(See 60)
relational deterioration  In Knapp's model, the process by which relationships disintegrate.
(See 177)
selective exposure  The tendency to expose ourselves to information that reinforces rather than contradicts our beliefs or opinions.
(See 44)
selective perception  The tendency to see, hear, and believe only what we want to see, hear, and believe.
(See 45)
selective retention  The tendency to remember better the things that reinforce our beliefs than those that oppose them.
(See 45)
self-actualization  According to Maslow, the fulfillment of one's potential as a person.
(See 58)
self-awareness  An understanding of and insight into one's self, including one's attitudes, values, beliefs, strengths, and weaknesses.
(See 56)
self-concept  An individual's evaluation of himself or herself, that is, an individual's self-appraisal.
(See 58)
self-efficacy  The belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situations.
(See 63)
self-esteem  The feeling an individual has about his or her self-concept, that is, how well the individual likes and values himself or herself.
(See 60)
self-fulfilling prophecy  The idea that we behave and see ourselves in ways that are consistent with how others see us.
(See 57)
self-image  The picture an individual has of himself or herself; the sort of person an individual believes he or she is.
(See 59)
self-presentation  The way we portray ourselves to others.
(See 63)
self-serving bias  In assessing ourselves, the tendency to attribute our own successes to our personal qualities and our failures to the circumstances.
(See 52)
similarity  (1) The principle that elements are grouped together because they share attributes such as size, color, or belief. (2) The idea that our friends are usually people who like or dislike the same things we do.
(See 49, 181)
stereotyping  Oversimplifying or standardizing a person because of her or his group membership.
(See 53, 87)
subjective perception  Your uniquely constructed meaning attributed to sensed stimuli.
(See 39)
symbolic interactionism  The process in which the self develops through the messages and feedback received from others.
(See 56)
abstractions  Simplifications of what words stand for.
(See 81)
arbitrary  The quality of words that states that they have no inherent meanings; they have only the meanings people give them.
(See 79)
cliche  An expression that has lost originality and force through overuse.
(See 84)
colloquialisms  Words and phrases that are used informally.
(See 83)
concrete language  Words and statements that are specific rather than abstract or vague.
(See 91)
connotative meaning  An individualized or personalized meaning of a word, which may be emotionally laden.
(See 80)
cultural competence  The ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures, classes, races, ethnic backgrounds, and religions in a manner that recognizes, affirms, and values the worth of individuals, families, and communities and protects and preserves the dignity of each.
(See 94)
dating  Specifying when you made an observation, since everything changes over time.
(See 92)
decode  The process of assigning meaning to others' words in order to translate them into thoughts of your own.
(See 74)
denotative meaning  The agreed-upon meaning or dictionary meaning of a word.
(See 80)
descriptiveness  The practice of describing observed behavior or phenomena instead of offering personal reactions or judgments.
(See 90)
encoding  The process of translating your thoughts into words.
(See 19, 75)
euphemism  A polite, more pleasant expression used instead of a socially unacceptable form.
(See 84)
figures of speech  Sets of words whose meaning go beyond the meaning of the words that comprise them.
(See 85)
frozen evaluation  An assessment of a concept that does not change over time.
(See 92)
heterosexist language  Language that implies that everyone is heterosexual.
(See 87)
indexing  Identifying the uniqueness of objects, events, and people.
(See 92)
irony  Words that express something different from, and often opposite to, their literal meaning.
(See 85)
jargon  The technical language developed by a professional group.
(See 86)
language  A code consisting of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate.
(See 74)
metaphors  Comparisons among unlike objects or concepts in which a common feature is highlighted.
(See 85)
metatalk  Talk in which meaning is not literal.
(See 83)
netiquette  Internet etiquette.
(See 77)
operational definition  Definition that identifies something by revealing how it works, how it is made, or what it consists of.
(See 90, 528)
paraphrasing  Restating another person's message by rephrasing the content or intent of the message.
(See 90)
phatic communication  Communication that is used to establish a mood of sociability rather than to communicate information or ideas.
(See 75)
pragmatics  The study of language as it is used in a social context, including its effect on the communicators.
(See 75)
profanity  Language that is disrespectful of things sacred, commonly known as "swearing".
(See 85)
racist language  Language that insults a group because of its color or ethnicity.
(See 87)
regionalisms  Words and phrases that are specific to a particular region or part of the country.
(See 86)
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis  A theory that our perception of reality is determined by our thought processes and our thought processes are limited by our language and, therefore, that language shapes our reality.
(See 76)
semantics  The branch of language study that is concerned with meaning.
(See 75)
sexist language  Language that excludes individuals on the basis of gender.
(See 87)
slang  A specialized language of a group of people who share a common interest or belong to a similar co-culture.
(See 84)
street language  Language that consists of highly informal words or phrases, often specific to one area, that are used to demonstrate unity.
(See 87)
syntax  A set of rules about language that determines how words are arranged to form phrases and sentences.
(See 18, 75)
adaptors  Nonverbal movements that you might perform fully in private but only partially in public.
(See 109)
affect displays  Nonverbal movements of the face and body used to show emotion.
(See 109)
analog  Continual variable, measurable, physical quantities; nonverbal communication is analogic.
(See 105)
artifacts  Ornaments or adornments we display that hold communicative potential.
(See 121)
chronemics  Also called temporal communication, the way people organize and use time.
(See 115)
complementation  Nonverbal and verbal codes add meaning to each other and expand the meaning of either message alone.
(See 104)
contradiction  (1) Verbal and nonverbal messages conflict. (2) In dialectic theory, each person in a relationship has two different ideas for maintaining the relationship.
(See 104, 175)
digital  Discrete or separate items; words are digital.
(See 105)
ectomorph  Body type that is characterized by a tall, thin, and sometimes frail person.
(See 110)
emblems  Nonverbal movements that substitute for words and phrases.
(See 109)
emphasis  Nonverbal cues strengthen verbal messages.
(See 104)
endomorph  Body type that tends to be short, soft, and round.
(See 110)
enunciation  Pronunciation and articulation to produce a word with clarity and distinction so it can be understood.
(See 119, 490)
expectancy violation theory  The communicative impact of violations of personal space expectations.
(See 115)
illustrators  Nonverbal movements that accompany or reinforce verbal messages.
(See 109)
inflection  The variety or changes in pitch.
(See 119)
intentionality  The purposefulness of nonverbal codes.
(See 107)
kinesics  The study of bodily movements, including posture, gestures, and facial expressions.
(See 108)
mesomorph  Body type that is proportioned, average in height, athletic, trim, and muscular.
(See 110)
nonverbal communication  The behaviors of people, other than their use of words, which have socially shared meaning, are intentionally sent or interpreted as intentional, are consciously sent or consciously received, and have the potential for feedback from the receiver.
(See 102)
nonword sounds  Sounds such as mmh, huh, and ahh and pauses or absence of sound used for effect in speaking.
(See 119)
objectics  Also called object language, the study of the human use of clothing and other artifacts as nonverbal codes.
(See 121)
paralinguistic features  The nonword sounds and nonword characteristics of language, such as pitch, volume, rate, and quality.
(See 119)
pronunciation  The conformity of the speaker's production of words with agreed-upon rules about the sounds of vowels and consonants, and for syllabic emphasis.
(See 119, 491)
proxemics  The study of the human use of space and distance.
(See 112)
regulation  Nonverbal cues are used to monitor and control interactions with others.
(See 105)
regulators  Nonverbal movements that control the flow or pace of communication.
(See 109)
repetition  The same message is sent both verbally and nonverbally.
(See 104)
silence  The lack of sound.
(See 119)
somatotype  Body type which is comprised of a combination of height, weight, and muscularity.
(See 110)
substitution  Nonverbal codes are used instead of verbal codes.
(See 105)
tactile communication  The use of touch in communication.
(See 116)
vocal cues  All the oral aspects of sound except words themselves; part of paralinguistic features.
(See 119)
volume  The loudness or softness of a person's voice.
(See 119, 489)
accurate  The extent to which premises in deductive arguments are truthful and verifiable.
(See 146)
active listening  Involved listening with a purpose.
(See 140)
automatic attention  The instinctive focus we give to stimuli signaling a change in our surroundings, stimuli that we deem as important, or stimuli that we perceive to signal danger.
(See 137)
bit of information  Any organized unit of information including sounds, letters, words, sentences, or something less concrete, like ideas.
(See 138)
communication situation  The context in which communication is occurring.
(See 143)
content message  The actual facts and ideas contained in the spoken statements of a communicator.
(See 152)
critical listening  Listening that challenges the speaker's message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility.
(See 141)
critical thinking  Analyzing the speaker, the situation, and the speaker's ideas to make critical judgments about the message being presented.
(See 143)
deductive arguments  Arguments using general propositions to make conclusions about a specific instance.
(See 145)
emoticons  Typographic symbols showing emotional meaning.
(See 158)
emotional proof  Also called pathos, proof based on feelings and emotions.
(See 145)
empathic listening  Listening with a purpose and attempting to understand the other person.
(See 140)
empathy  The ability to perceive another person's worldview as if it were your own.
(See 140)
enthymemes  Deductive arguments in which one or more parts are left out.
(See 146)
first-person observation  Observations based on something that you personally have sensed.
(See 144)
hearing  The act of receiving sound.
(See 133)
inductive arguments  Arguments using specific pieces of evidence to draw a generalization.
(See 145)
inference  A tentative conclusion drawn from observation, based on some evidence.
(See 93,144,406)
information literacy  The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate and effectively use the information needed.
(See 157)
justification  The evidence used to support propositions.
(See 145)
lecture cues  Verbal or nonverbal signals that stress points or indicate transitions between ideas during a lecture.
(See 155)
lecture listening  The ability to listen to, mentally process, and recall lecture information.
(See 154)
listening  The active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages. It involves the ability to retain information, as well as to react empathically and/or appreciatively to spoken and/or nonverbal messages.
(See 133)
logical proof  Also called logos, proof based on reasoning.
(See 145)
long-term memory  Our permanent storage place for information including but not limited to past experiences, language, values, knowledge, images of people, memories of sights, sounds, and smells, and even fantasies.
(See 139)
message analysis  Evaluating the process by which information or knowledge was discovered as well as evaluating specific elements of the message content.
(See 144)
mindfulness  Being fully engaged in the moment.
(See 140)
negative feedback  Verbal and nonverbal responses intended to disconfirm the speaker and the speaker's message.
(See 140)
personal proof  Also called ethos, proof based on personal expertise or authority.
(See 146)
positive feedback  Verbal and nonverbal responses intended to affirm the speaker and the speaker's message.
(See 140)
propositions  Statements the speaker is trying to prove.
(See 145)
relational messages  Messages which address the feelings of one person in relation to another or the feelings of one person about the relationship he or she has with another.
(See 152)
schema  Organizational "filing systems" for thoughts held in long-term memory.
(See 139)
second-person observation  A report of what another person observed.
(See 144)
selective attention  The tendency, when we expose ourselves to information and ideas, to focus on certain cues and ignore others.
(See 44, 137)
short-term memory  A part of memory that acts as a temporary storage place for information.
(See 138)
source credibility  The extent to which the speaker is perceived as competent to make the claims he or she is making.
(See 146, 375, 549)
stimulus cues  Words, images, smells, and/or tastes that signal us to activate information held in schema.
(See 139)
syllogism  Deductive arguments that have a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
(See 145)
valid  In deductive arguments, when the conclusion logically flows from the logical combination of the major and minor premises.
(See 146)
working memory  The part of our consciousness that interprets and assigns meaning to stimuli we pay attention to.
(See 137)
affection  The emotion of caring for others and/or being cared for by them.
(See 191, 267)
aggressiveness  Assertion of one's rights at the expense of others and care about one's own needs but no one else's.
(See 187)
androgynous  A term used in reference to persons who possess stereotypical female and male characteristics.
(See 197)
anxiety uncertainty management  A theory that suggests that people who find themselves in unfamiliar cultures feel uncertainty, which leads to anxiety.
(See 180)
argumentativeness  The quality or state of being argumentative; synonymous with contentiousness or combativeness.
(See 187)
avoiding  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage characterized by partners' reluctance to interact, active avoidance, and hostility.
(See 177)
axiom  Statement accepted as true without proof.
(See 179)
bargaining  The process in which two or more parties attempt to reach an agreement on what each should give and receive in a relationship.
(See 195)
behavioral flexibility  The ability to alter behavior to adapt to new situations and to relate in new ways when necessary.
(See 197)
bonding  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage in which partners commit to each other.
(See 173)
circumscribing  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage marked by a decrease in partners' interaction, time spent together, and depth of sharing.
(See 177)
complementarity  The idea that we sometimes bond with people whose strengths are our weaknesses.
(See 181)
complementary relationships  Relationships in which each person supplies something the other person or persons lack.
(See 170)
compliance-gaining  Those attempts made by a source of messages to influence a target to perform some desired behavior that the target otherwise might not perform.
(See 192)
compliance-resisting  Refusal of targets of influence messages to comply to requests.
(See 193)
control  (1) The ability to influence others, our environment, and ourselves. (2) The ability to influence an interview through the use of status, prestige, and custom.
(See 170, 267)
deceptive communication  The practice of deliberately making somebody believe things that are not true.
(See 186)
dependence power  Control over a relationship held by a person who is committed to the relationship but perceives the partner to be less committed and who has a number of viable relationship alternatives.
(See 184)
dialectic  Tension that exists between two conflicting or interacting forces, elements, or ideas.
(See 175)
dialectic of expression/privacy  Tension between wanting to self-disclose and be completely open while also wanting to be private and closed.
(See 175)
dialectic of integration/separation  Tension between wanting to be separate entities and wanting to be integrated with another person.
(See 175)
dialectic of stability/change  Tension between wanting events, conversations, and behavior to be the same while also desiring change.
(See 175)
differentiating  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage in which partners emphasize their individual differences rather than their similarities.
(See 177)
experimenting  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage in which partners attempt to discover information about each other.
(See 173)
hurtful messages  Messages that create emotional pain or upset.
(See 186)
influence  The power to affect other people's thinking or actions.
(See 192)
initiating  In Knapp's stages of relational development, the short beginning period of a relationship.
(See 173)
integrating  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage in which partners start mirroring each other's behavior.
(See 173)
intensifying  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage in which partners become more aware of each other and actively participate in the relationship.
(See 173)
interpersonal dominance  A relational, behavioral, and interactional state that reflects the actual achievement of influence or control over another via communicative actions.
(See 193)
interpersonal relationship  The association of two or more people who are interdependent, who use some consistent patterns of interaction, and who have interacted for an extended period of time.
(See 168)
jealousy  Possessive watchfulness of the partner or suspicion about potential rivals for the partner's affections.
(See 185)
neutralization  Managing dialectics by compromise.
(See 176)
personal idioms  Unique forms of expression and language understood only by individual couples.
(See 194)
relational development  In Knapp's model, the process by which relationships grow.
(See 173)
relational maintenance  In Knapp's model, the process of keeping a relationship together.
(See 174)
rituals  Formalized patterns of actions or words followed regularly.
(See 194)
selection  (1) The process of neglecting some stimuli in the environment to focus on other stimuli. (2) Managing dialectics by choosing one need over the other.
(See 44, 176)
self-disclosure  The process of making intentional revelations about oneself that others would be unlikely to know and that generally constitute private, sensitive, or confidential information.
(See 187)
social attractiveness  A concept that includes physical attractiveness, how desirable a person is to work with, and how much "social value" the person has for others.
(See 181)
social exchange theory  Economic model which suggets that we develop relationships on the basis of their rewards and costs.
(See 182)
social penetration theory  A theory that explains how relationships develop and deteriorate through the exchange of intimate information.
(See 172)
stagnating  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage of deterioration marked by the partner's lack of activity, especially together.
(See 177)
symmetrical relationships  Relationships between people who mirror each other or who are highly similar.
(See 171)
terminating  In Knapp's relational development model, the stage of deterioration in which the partners are no longer seen as a pair by themselves or others.
(See 177)
uncertainty reduction theory  A theory that upon first meeting, strangers seek to reduce the uncertainty that they have about the other person.
(See 178, 351)
veracity effect  The assumption that messages are truthful.
(See 186)
accommodation  The nondominant individual participates with the dominant group without losing his or her cultural identity.
(See 214)
aggressive mode  Those behaviors perceived as hurtfully expressive, self-promoting, and assuming control over the choices of others.
(See 215)
assertive mode  Self-enhancing, expressive communication that takes into account both self and other's needs.
(See 214)
assimilation  Individuals from the nondominant group attempt to "fit in" the dominant group.
(See 213)
avoidance  A conscious attempt not to engage with people in the dominant group.
(See 214)
code sensitivity  The ability to use the verbal and nonverbal language appropriate to the cultural or co-cultural norms of the individual with whom you are communicating.
(See 225)
collectivist cultures  Cultures that value the group over the individual.
(See 219)
confrontational tactics  Belligerent attempts to make the dominant groups hear your position.
(See 215)
cultural relativism  The belief that another culture should be judged by its context rather than measured against your own culture.
(See 216)
culture  A system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of a society use to cope with one another and with their world.
(See 42, 76, 212, 343)
ethnocentrism  The belief that your own group or culture is superior to other groups or cultures.
(See 216)
explicit-rule culture  A culture in which information and cultural rules are explicit, procedures are explained, and expectations are discussed.
(See 221)
face  (1) The socially approved and presented identity of an individual. (2) People's need for a sense of self-respect in a communication situation.
(See 64, 220)
high-context (HC) cultures  Cultures like these of the Asian Pacific Rim and Central and South America where much of the meaning is "preprogrammed information" understood by the receiver and transmitted also by the context in which the transaction occurs.
(See 220)
implicit-rule culture  A culture in which information and cultural rules are implied and already known to the participants.
(See 221)
individualistic cultures  Cultures that value individual freedom, choice, uniqueness, and independence.
(See 217)
intercultural communication  The exchange of information between individuals who are unlike culturally.
(See 210)
low-context (LC) cultures  Cultures like United States and Scandinavia where communication tends to be centered on the source with intentions stated overtly and with a direct verbal style.
(See 219)
marginalized groups  People who are made to feel like outsiders in other people's world.
(See 213)
M-time  The monochrononic time schedule, which compartmentalizes time to meet personal needs, separates task and social dimensions, and points to the future.
(See 222)
muted group theory  The idea that women were largely silenced by men when women's ideas were unvalued, underestimated, and sometimes unheard.
(See 213)
passive mode  An attempt to separate by having as little to do as possible with the dominant group.
(See 214)
P-time  The polychronic time schedule, where a culture views time as "contextually based and relationally oriented."
(See 222)
separation  (1) The nondominant individual resists interactions with the dominant group, preferring instead to relate more exclusively with his or her own group. (2) Managing dialectics by fulfilling one need in some situations and the other in different situations.
(See 176, 214)
stereotype  A generalization about some group of people that oversimplifies their culture.
(See 216)
tolerating ambiguity  Being open-minded about differences.
(See 225)
uncertainty-accepting cultures  Cultures that tolerate ambiguity, uncertainty, and diversity.
(See 220)
uncertainty-rejecting cultures  Cultures that have difficulty with ambiguity, uncertainty, and diversity.
(See 221)
utilization of liaisons  Relating to the dominant group through others with a shared cultural identity or with a trusted individual from the dominant group.
(See 214)
anticipatory socialization  Process through which individuals develop a set of expectations and beliefs concerning how people communicate in particular occupations and in formal and informal work settings.
(See 242, 317)
behaviorally based question  A question that focuses on an applicant's past actions and behaviors to determine how he or she will perform in the future.
(See 240)
bipolar question  A question that limits answer options to two choices.
(See 238)
chronological resume  A document that organizes credentials over time.
(See 250)
clearinghouse question  A question worded to assure an interviewer that all essential information is provided.
(See 239)
closed question  A question worded to restrict the response, often asking for specific information or supplying answer options from which the respondent chooses.
(See 238)
closing  The stage of an interview indicating its termination.
(See 238)
cover letter  A short letter introducing you and your résumé to an interviewer.
(See 251)
functional resume  A document that organizes credentials by type of function performed.
(See 251)
hypothetical question  A question that requires the interviewee to describe how he or she would behave in specific situations.
(See 240)
informational question  A question worded to clarify an answer that appears to be vague or superficial.
(See 239)
interview  A dyadic communication context with a purpose or goal.
(See 235)
interview guide  An outline of topics and subtopics to be covered.
(See 237)
interview schedule  A list of major questions and follow-up questions; the schedule is a useful tool in keeping the interview focused on the topic or issue of concern.
(See 237)
job description  A document that defines the job in terms of its content and scope.
(See 244)
leading question  A question worded to elicit a particular response from an interviewee.
(See 240)
network  An intricate web of contacts and relationships designed to benefit the participants.
(See 244)
neutral question  A question that requires an answer consistent with candidates' positions on an issue, with their beliefs, with their attitudes and values, or with the facts as they know them.
(See 240)
nudging question  A question that motivates further interaction.
(See 239)
objective statement  An articulation of your goals.
(See 249)
online resume  A résumé in plain text (ASCII) or in hypertext language (HTML) and posted on the Web.
(See 251)
open question  A question worded to permit freedom in the length and nature of the response.
(See 238)
primary question  A question that introduces areas of inquiry and is coherent in itself.
(See 239)
reflective question  A question that verifies information when accuracy is a concern.
(See 239)
relational uncertainty  A state of suspicion or doubt.
(See 236)
secondary question  A question that pursues the trail of information discovered in the response to a previous question.
(See 239)
silent probes  To refrain from saying anything for a brief time, letting the respondent fill in the silence.
(See 239)
style  The overall tone created by your linguistic and aesthetic choices.
(See 247)
absolute criteria  Criteria for selecting alternatives that must be met; giving the group no leeway.
(See 291)
assigned groups  Groups that evolve out of a hierarchy where individuals are assigned membership to the group.
(See 271)
autocratic leaders  Leaders who maintain strict control over their group.
(See 274)
brainstorming  A creative procedure for generating ideas and potential solutions to problems.
(See 291, 292)
charisma  An extreme type of referent power that inspires strong loyalty and devotion from others.
(See 273)
coercion  (1) A form of punishment that attempts to force compliance with hostile tactics. (2) Forcing people to think or behave as you wish.
(See 273, 540)
cognitive paradigms  Ways of looking at the world based on individuals' attitudes, beliefs, values, and perceptions.
(See 279)
cohesiveness  The attachment members feel toward each other and the group.
(See 285)
communicative competencies approach  A leadership theory focusing on the communicative behaviors of leaders as they exercise interpersonal influence to accomplish group goals.
(See 275)
conjunctive task  A task for which no one group member has all the necessary information, but each member has some information to contribute.
(See 287)
contingency approach  An approach to studying leadership that assumes group situations vary, with different situations (contingencies) requiring different leadership styles.
(See 275)
criteria  The standards by which a group must judge potential solutions.
(See 290)
democratic leaders  Leaders who encourage members to participate in group decisions.
(See 274)
designated leader  Someone who has been appointed or elected to a leadership position.
(See 273)
disjunctive tasks  Tasks which require little coordination and which can be completed by the most skilled group member working alone.
(See 287)
distributed leadership  A leadership theory explicitly acknowledging that each member is expected to perform the communication behaviors needed to move the group toward its goal.
(See 276)
emergent groups  Groups resulting from environmental conditions leading to the formation of a cohesive group of individuals.
(See 271)
emergent leader  Someone who becomes an informal leader by exerting influence toward achievement of a group's goal but who does not hold the formal position or role of leader.
(See 273)
ethics  (1) A set of moral principles or values. (2) Rules and standards for the conduct and practices of group members.
(See 28, 295, 551)
expert power  Power based on the value other members place on the leader's knowledge or expertise.
(See 273)
formal role  Also called positional role, an assigned role based on an individual's position or title within a group.
(See 281)
gender  The learned characteristics associated with masculinity and femininity.
(See 277)
group climate  The emotional tone or atmosphere members create within the group.
(See 284)
group culture  The socially negotiated system of rules that guide group behavior.
(See 277)
group decision support system (GDSS)  Interactive network of computers with specialized software allowing users to generate solutions for unstructured problems.
(See 293)
groupthink  An unintended outcome of cohesiveness where the desire for agreement takes precedence over critical analysis and discussion.
(See 286)
important criteria  Criteria for evaluating alternatives that should be met, but the group has some flexibility.
(See 291)
inclusion  (1) The state of being involved with others. (2) The degree to which each party wants to participate in an interview and wants to include others in the interview.
(See 170, 267)
informal role  Also called a behavioral role, a role that is developed spontaneously within a group.
(See 282)
laissez-faire leaders  Leaders who take almost no initiative for structuring a group discussion.
(See 274)
leader  A person who influences the behavior and attitudes of others through communication.
(See 273)
leadership  A process of using communication to influence the behaviors and attitudes of others to meet group goals.
(See 272)
maintenance functions  Behaviors that focus on the interpersonal relationships among members.
(See 282)
power  Interpersonal influence that forms the basis for group leadership.
(See 273)
problem questions  Group questions which focus on the undesirable present state and imply that many solutions are possible.
(See 290)
punishment power  A form of power where the leader withholds something followers want and need.
(See 273)
referent power  Power based on others' admiration or respect.
(See 273)
relationship-oriented groups  Also called primary groups; groups that are usually long-term and exist to meet our needs for inclusion and affection (love, esteem).
(See 271)
reward power  A form of power where the leader gives followers resources they want and need.
(See 273)
role  The part an individual plays in a group; an individual's function or expected behavior.
(See 42, 281)
self-centered functions  Behaviors that serve the needs of the individual at the expense of the group.
(See 282)
sex  The biological reproductive characteristics with which we are born.
(See 277)
solution questions  Group questions which slant the group's discussion toward one particular option.
(See 290)
stakeholders  Groups of people who have an interest in the actions of an organization.
(See 292)
alternative organizations  Employing organizations that define themselves at least somewhat in opposition to the mainstream and are established and maintained with the principle of worker control.
(See 312)
bureaucracy  An organizational structure characterized by a division of labor, rigid hierarchy of authority, and downward communication that enforces formalized rules and procedures for behavior.
(See 309)
chain of command  Clear lines of authority.
(See 309)
communication networks  Patterns of relationships through which information flows in an organization.
(See 315)
cooperative  A business owned and democratically controlled by its users.
(See 312)
crisis management  The use of public relations to minimize harm to the organization in an emergency situation that could cause the organization irreparable damage.
(See 320)
customer service encounter  The moment of interaction between the customer and the firm.
(See 321)
division of labor  How a given amount of work is divided among the available human resources.
(See 309)
downward communication  Superiors initiate messages to subordinates.
(See 309)
economic production orientation  Organizations that manufacture products and/or other services for consumers.
(See 306)
emergent organizational networks  The informal, naturally occurring patterns of communication relationships in organizations.
(See 316)
emotional labor  Jobs in which employees are expected to display certain feelings in order to satisfy organizational role expectations.
(See 322)
environment  Organizations and individuals with whom organizational representatives have direct contact.
(See 319)
external communication  Verbal and nonverbal messages enabling members of an organization to coordinate its activities with those in its environment.
(See 319)
feminist organization  An organization that embraces collectivist decision making, member empowerment, and a political agenda of ending women's oppression.
(See 312)
formal communication  Messages that follow prescribed channels of communication throughout the organization.
(See 315)
functional classification system  A classification of organizational types based on the primary purposes for organizing and developing organization within society.
(See 306)
grapevine communication  Informal interactions.
(See 317)
hierarchy  Formal organizational authority based on the office held and the expertise of individual officeholders.
(See 309)
horizontal communication  Messages between members of an organization with equal power.
(See 316)
hostile work environment sexual harassment  Conditions in the workplace that are sexually offensive, intimidating, or hostile and that affect an individual's ability to perform his or her job.
(See 325)
informal communication  Any interaction that does not generally follow the formal structure of the organization but emerges out of natural social interaction among organization members.
(See 316)
information  A product (outcome) of communication that serves to help people understand and predict the world around them.
(See 313)
integration-goals orientation  Organizations that help to mediate and resolve discord among members of society.
(See 307)
internal organizational communication  The symbolic interaction that occurs within organizations and among organizational members.
(See 314)
management information system (MIS)  System designed and implemented to help manage organizations' varied information needs.
(See 313)
managers  Persons responsible for making decisions and directing activities to accomplish primary organizational goals.
(See 309)
norms  Informal rules for group interaction created and sustained through communication.
(See 280, 318)
organizational assimilation  Processes through which individuals become integrated into the culture of an organization.
(See 317)
organizational chart  Visual depiction of formal communication networks.
(See 315)
organizational communication  Ways in which groups of people both maintain structure and order through their symbolic interactions and allow individual actors the freedom to accomplish their goals.
(See 305)
organizational culture  A pattern of beliefs, values, and practices shared by the members of an organization.
(See 318)
organizational image  Mental picture of an organization that is descriptive and evaluative.
(See 320)
organizational politics  The exercise or negotiation of power.
(See 318)
organizational stakeholder  Any person or group that has an interest, right, claim, or ownership in an organization.
(See 320)
organizational structure  Patterns of relations and practices created through the coordinated activities of organizational members.
(See 308, 464)
organizations  Social collectives, or groups of people, in which activities are coordinated to achieve both individual and collective goals.
(See 305)
participatory organizations  Organizations that value workplace democracy.
(See 310)
pattern-maintenance goal orientation  Organizations that promote cultural and educational regularity and development within society.
(See 307)
political-goals orientation  Organizations that generate and distribute power and control within society.
(See 307)
productivity  The ratio of input to output.
(See 308)
public relations (PR)  The management of communication between an organization and its publics.
(See 320)
quality  (1) The unique resonance of one's voice, such as huskiness, nasality, raspiness, and whininess. (2) Level of performance outcome measured in ability to meet or exceed stakeholders' expectations.
(See 119, 308)
quality circle  A small group of employees that meets regularly on company time to recommend improvements to products and work procedures.
(See 310)
quid pro quo sexual harassment  A situation in which an employee is offered a reward or is threatened with punishment based on his or her participation in a sexual activity.
(See 325)
reasonable person rule  Legal concept used by courts to determine whether a "reasonable person" would find behavior in question offensive.
(See 325)
self-managed work teams  Groups of workers who are given the freedom to manage their own work.
(See 311)
sexual harassment  Unwelcome, unsolicited, repeated behavior of a sexual nature.
(See 324)
structuration  The process of formating and maintaining structures through verbal and nonverbal communication, which establishes norms and rules governing members' behaviors.
(See 306)
upward communication  Messages flowing from subordinates to superiors.
(See 316)
verbal aggressiveness  An individual's communication that attacks the self-concepts of other people in order to inflict psychological pain.
(See 323)
workplace aggression  All communication by which individuals attempt to harm others at work.
(See 323)
workplace democracy  A system of governance which truly values individual goals and feelings (e.g., feelings of equitable remuneration, the pursuit of enriching work, and the right to express oneself) as well as typical organizational objectives (e.g., effectiveness and efficiency) and actively fosters the connection between those two sets of concerns by encouraging individual contributions to important organizational choices.
(See 310)
workplace violence  Instances involving direct physical assaults.
(See 323)
agenda setting  The determination of the topics discussed by individuals and society on the basis of media attention.
(See 344)
asynchronous communication  Delays occur in the communication interaction and each participant must take turns being the sender and receiver.
(See 348)
audio-video conferencing  Use of the Internet or a network to connect two or more multimedia-capable computers for live, interactive conversations using visual and auditory channels of communication.
(See 350)
blind peer review  Anonymous review of articles submitted for publication in professional journals by other professionals in the discipline.
(See 341)
bulletin board system (BBS)  Text-based asynchronous communication tool that allow users to disseminate information to a large number of people.
(See 349)
computer-mediated communication (CMC)  Human-to-human communication using networked computer environments to facilitate interaction.
(See 336)
cultivation effect  Heavy television and media use leads people to perceive reality as consistent with the portrayals they see on television.
(See 346)
digital divide  A growing gap between those who have access to technology and those who do not.
(See 354)
electronic mail  Use of the Internet or a computer network to send addressable messages to another person connected to the Internet or network.
(See 349)
gatekeeping  The process of determining what news, information, or entertainment will reach a mass audience.
(See 343)
impression formation  Making inferences about another person's personality, values, and traits.
(See 351)
instant messaging (IM)  A text-based form of synchronous communication which allows users to connect two computers over the Internet and have a "conversation" through their computers.
(See 349)
Internet relay chat (IRC)  A text-based synchronous communication system that allows multiple users to interact in real time via the Internet.
(See 349)
linear communication  Communication that flows primarily from the sender to the receiver with little or no feedback from the receiver to the sender.
(See 336)
listserv  E-mail-based discussion groups.
(See 349)
mass communication  A process in which professional communicators using technological devices share messages over great distances to influence large audiences.
(See 26, 335)
mediated communication  Any form of communication that takes place using electronic means.
(See 335)
message  The verbal or nonverbal form of the idea, thought, or feeling that one person (the source) wishes to communicate to another person or group of people (the receivers).
(See 17, 336)
multiuser environments  Web-based virtual worlds where participants can interact and engage in fantasy role-playing.
(See 350)
physical communities  The actual communities we live in-our neighborhoods and cities.
(See 352)
synchronous communication  Members of the communication interaction interact in real time, and each participant is simultaneously a sender and receiver.
(See 348)
style approaches  A leadership theory focusing on the pattern of behaviors leaders exhibit in groups.
(See 274)
supportiveness  An atmosphere of openness created when members care about each other and treat each other with respect.
(See 285)
task functions  Behaviors that are directly relevant to the group's task and that affect the group's productivity.
(See 282)
task-oriented groups  Also called secondary groups, groups formed for the purpose of completing tasks, such as solving problems or making decisions.
(See 271)
trust  A group climate characteristic where members believe they can rely on each other.
(See 284)
virtual communities  Collections of people who populate discussion boards and/or multiuser environments on the Internet.
(See 352)
within-group diversity  The presence of observable and/or implicit differences among group members.
(See 277)
cognitive modification  An anxiety-reducing technique designed to bolster the novice speaker's confidence by positive thinking.
(See 372)
common ground  Also known as co-orientation, it is the degree to which the speaker's values, beliefs, attitudes, and interests are shared with the audience; an aspect of credibility.
(See 378)
communication apprehension (CA)  An individual's fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons.
(See 366)
communibiological perspective  The idea that communication apprehension represents individuals' expression of inborn, biological functioning.
(See 368)
competence  The degree to which the speaker is perceived as skilled, reliable, experienced, qualified, authoritative, and informed; an aspect of credibility.
(See 377)
dynamism  The extent to which the speaker is perceived as bold, active, energetic, strong, empathic, and assertive; an aspect of credibility.
(See 378)
identification  Young adults' sense of self and self-worth as a dimension of source credibility.
(See 379)
self-managed approach  Reducing communication apprehension by self-diagnosis and application of appropriate therapies.
(See 374)
skills approach  Reducing communication apprehension by improving skills such as by taking a public speaking course.
(See 371)
sleeper effect  A change of audience opinion caused by the separation of the message content from its source over a period of time.
(See 380)
state anxiety  Anxiety engendered by a specific situation.
(See 368)
systematic desensitization  Combining deep relaxation with fear-inducing thoughts to reduce communication apprehension.
(See 373)
trait anxiety  Anxiety described as persistent behavior of a continuing nature.
(See 368)
trustworthiness  The degree to which the speaker is perceived as honest, fair, sincere, honorable, friendly, and kind; an aspect of credibility.
(See 377)
visualization  A process of picturing one's self succeeding to reduce communication apprehension.
(See 373)
attitude  A predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to a person, an object, an idea, or an event.
(See 403)
audience analysis  The collection and interpretation of data on the demographics, attitudes, values, and beliefs of the audience obtained by observation, inferences, questionnaires, or interviews.
(See 398)
audience interest  The relevance and importance of the topic to an audience; sometimes related to the uniqueness of the topic.
(See 402)
audience knowledge  The amount of information the audience already has about the topic.
(See 402)
belief  A conviction; often thought to be more enduring than an attitude and less enduring than a value.
(See 403)
captive audience  An audience that has not chosen to hear a particular speaker or speech.
(See 400)
demographic analysis  The collection and interpretation of data about the characteristics of people, excluding their attitudes, values, and beliefs.
(See 401)
heterogeneous  Characterized by many differences among individuals in an audience.
(See 400)
homogeneous  Characterized by similarities among individuals.
(See 400)
involvement  The importance of the topic to the speaker; determined by the strength of the feelings the speaker has about the topic and the time and energy the speaker devotes to that topic.
(See 394)
observation  Description of what is sensed; seeing and sensing the behavior and characteristics of an audience.
(See 93, 144, 405)
personal inventory  A speaker's survey of his or her reading and viewing habits and behavior to discover topics of personal interest.
(See 393)
questionnaire  A set of written questions developed to obtain demographic and attitudinal information.
(See 408)
strategic choices  What you choose to do in your speech, from the words to the arguments.
(See 413)
value  A deeply rooted belief that governs our attitude about something.
(See 404)
voluntary audience  A collection of people who choose to listen to a particular speaker or speech.
(See 400)
analogy  A comparison of things in some respects, especially in position or function, that are otherwise dissimilar.
(See 438)
bibliographic references  Complete citations that appear in the "references" or "works cited" section of your speech outline.
(See 431)
bookmarks  A feature of most Web browsers that stores links for immediate retrieval without entering the URL each time you want to access the site.
(See 426)
celebrity testimony  Statements made by a public figure who is known to the audience.
(See 436)
computer catalog  An electronic database containing information about materials in a library.
(See 423)
definitions  Determinations of meaning through description, simplification, examples, analysis, comparison, explanation, or illustration.
(See 438)
evidence  (1) Data or information from which you can draw a conclusion, make a judgment, or establish the probability of something occurring. (2) Any material that supports a proposition.
(See 439, 546)
examples  Specific instances used to illustrate your point.
(See 434)
expert testimony  Statements made by someone who has special knowledge or expertise about an issue or idea.
(See 436)
home page  The first page on a website.
(See 426)
hyperlink  A link in a WWW document that leads to another website or to another place within the same document.
(See 424)
internal reference  Brief notation indicating a bibliographic reference that contains the details you are using in your speech.
(See 431)
Internet  A global network of interconnected computer networks.
(See 340, 424)
lay testimony  Statements made by an ordinary person that substantiate or support what you say.
(See 436)
personal experience  Use of your own life as a source of information.
(See 422)
proof  Evidence that is sufficient to convince your audience of the truth of a claim.
(See 439)
reference librarian  A librarian specifically trained to help find sources of information.
(See 423)
search engine  A program on the Internet that allows users to search for information.
(See 425)
statistics  Numbers that summarize numerical information or compare quantities.
(See 437)
supporting materials  Information you can use to substantiate your arguments and to clarify your position.
(See 434)
surveys  Studies in which a limited number of questions are answered by a sample of the population to discover words, images, smells, and/or tastes that signal us to activate information held in schema.
(See 435)
testimonial evidence  Written or oral statements of others' experience used by a speaker to substantiate or clarify a point.
(See 435)
uniform resource locator (URL)  An address on the Web where particular information is located.
(See 425)
verbal citations  Oral explanations of who the source is, how recent the information is, and the source's qualifications.
(See 432)
virtual libraries  Websites which provide links to sites that have been reviewed for relevance and usability.
(See 425)
Web browser  A tool for viewing pages on the WWW.
(See 425)
World Wide Web (WWW)  A feature of the Internet that links together all the individual websites.
(See 424)
bibliography  A list of sources used in a presentation.
(See 475)
body  The largest part of the presentation, which contains the arguments, evidence, and main content.
(See 453)
brakelight function  A forewarning to the audience that the end of the presentation is near.
(See 473)
cause/effect pattern  A method of organization in which the presenter first explains the causes of an event, a problem, or an issue and then discusses its consequences, results, or effects.
(See 467)
conclusion  The last part of the presentation; a summary of the major ideas that is designed to induce mental or behavioral change in an audience.
(See 473)
immediate goal or purpose  What a speaker wishes to accomplish during his or her presentation or shortly after it.
(See 455, 541)
introduction  The first part of the presentation; its function is to arouse the audience and to lead into the main ideas presented in the body.
(See 446)
key-word outline  An outline consisting of important words or phrases to remind the speaker of the content of the presentation.
(See 463)
long-range goal  What you expect to achieve over a time period longer than the day of your presentation.
(See 455)
main points  The most important points in a presentation; indicated by Roman numerals in an outline.
(See 456)
organizational patterns  Arrangements of the contents of a presentation.
(See 464)
outline  A written plan that uses symbols, margins, and content to reveal the order, importance, and substance of a presentation.
(See 454)
parallel form  The consistent use of complete sentences, clauses, phrases, or words in an outline.
(See 458)
problem/solution pattern  A method of organization in which the presenter describes a problem and proposes a solution to that problem.
(See 469)
rough draft  The preliminary organization of the outline of a presentation.
(See 459)
sentence outline  An outline consisting entirely of complete sentences.
(See 461)
signposts  Ways in which a presenter signals to an audience where the presentation is going.
(See 472)
spatial/relations organization  A method of organization in which the presenter reveals how things relate to each other in space, position, and visual orientation.
(See 466)
subpoints  The points in a presentation that support the main points; indicated by capital letters in an outline.
(See 456)
time-sequence pattern  A method of organization in which the presenter explains a sequence of events in chronological order.
(See 465)
topical-sequence pattern  A method of organization that emphasizes the major reasons an audience should accept a point of view by addressing the advantages, disadvantages, qualities, and types of persons, places, or things.
(See 470)
transition  A bridge between sections of a presentation that helps the presenter move smoothly from one idea to another.
(See 471)
articulation  Coordination of the mouth, tongue, and teeth to make a word understandable by others; a component of enunciation.
(See 119, 491)
bodily movement  What the speaker does with his or her entire body during a speech presentation.
(See 498)
delivery  The presentation of a speech by using your voice and body to reinforce your message.
(See 484)
extemporaneous mode  A carefully prepared and researched speech delivered in a conversational style.
(See 485)
eye contact  The extent to which a speaker looks directly at the audience.
(See 497)
facial expression  Any nonverbal cue expressed by the speaker's face.
(See 496)
fluency  The smoothness of delivery, the flow of words, and the absence of vocalized pauses.
(See 492)
gestures  Movements of the head, arms, and hands to illustrate, emphasize, or signal ideas in the speech.
(See 494)
impromptu mode  Delivery of a speech without notes, plans, or preparation; characterized by spontaneity and informal language.
(See 485)
manuscript mode  Delivery of a speech from a script of the entire speech.
(See 486)
memorized mode  Delivering a speech that has been committed to memory.
(See 486)
pause  The absence of vocal sound used for dramatic effect, transition, or emphasis of ideas.
(See 489)
pitch  The highness or lowness of a speaker's voice; technically, the frequency of sound made by vocal cords.
(See 119, 488)
rate  The speed at which speech is delivered, normally between 125 and 190 words per minute.
(See 119, 488)
visual aids  Any items that can be seen by an audience for the purpose of reinforcing a message.
(See 500)
vocal variety  Vocal quality, intonation patterns, inflections of pitch, and syllabic duration; a lack of repetitious patterns in vocal delivery.
(See 492)
vocalized pauses  Breaks in fluency; filling in silences with meaningless words or sounds that negatively affect an audience's perception of the speaker's competence and dynamism.
(See 489)
abstract words  Words or phrases that refer generally to ideas, qualities, acts, or relationships.
(See 529)
antonym  A word that means the opposite of another word.
(See 528)
comparison  A means of defining by pointing out similarities between the known and the less known.
(See 528)
concrete words  Words that refer to definite persons, places, objects, and acts.
(See 529)
contrast  The comparison of unlike things.
(See 528)
etymology  The historical origin of a word.
(See 528)
extrinsic motivation  A method of making information relevant by providing the audience with reasons outside the speech itself for listening to the content of the speech.
(See 523)
explanation  A means of idea development that simplifies or clarifies an idea while arousing audience interest.
(See 438, 530)
imagery  Use of words that appeal to the senses, that create pictures in the mind.
(See 530)
immediate behavioral purposes  Actions a speaker seeks from an audience during and immediately after a speech.
(See 521)
information hunger  The audience's need for the information contained in the speech.
(See 522)
information overload  A situation that occurs when the quantity or difficulty of the information presented is greater than the audience can assimilate within the given time.
(See 526)
information relevance  The importance, novelty, and usefulness of the topic and the information.
(See 523)
informative content  The main points and subpoints, illustrations, and examples used to clarify and inform.
(See 524)
interest  Curiosity about a topic.
(See 517)
narrating  The oral presentation and interpretation of a story, a description, or an event; includes dramatic reading of prose or poetry.
(See 531)
rhetorical questions  Questions asked for effect, with no answer expected.
(See 522)
significance  The importance, meaningfulness, or consequenses of a message for an audience.
(See 517)
synonym  A word that means approximately the same as another word.
(See 528)
ability to choose  Making a decision based on information and ideas.
(See 540)
adoption  Inducing an audience to accept a new idea, attitude, behavior, belief, or product and to demonstrate that acceptance through behavioral change.
(See 541)
arguments  Propositions, justifications, and evidence used to persuade.
(See 145, 547)
believability  A criterion of good evidence—the audience must trust and accept the evidence.
(See 555)
boomerang effect  An unintended situation in which the speaker and the message induce an audience response that is the opposite of what the speaker intended.
(See 550)
continuance  Persuading an audience to continue present behavior or beliefs.
(See 541)
counterarguments  Rebuttals to an argument.
(See 548)
discipline  An area of academic study.
(See 11)
deterrence  Persuading an audience to avoid an activity or a belief.
(See 541)
discontinuance  Inducing an audience to stop doing something or thinking in a certain way.
(See 541)
emotional appeals  Attempts to persuade audience members to change an attitude or a behavior through an appeal—usually in a narrative form—to their emotions.
(See 545)
evidence  (1) Data or information from which you can draw a conclusion, make a judgment, or establish the probability of something occurring. (2) Any material that supports a proposition.
(See 439, 546)
intention  How the speaker wants the audience to respond.
(See 543)
logical appeals  Propositions and evidence used to persuade an audience.
(See 546)
manipulation  Tricking people or using fraudulent means to change people's behavior.
(See 540)
Monroe motivated sequence  A problem-solving format that encourages an audience to become concerned about an issue; especially appropriate for a persuasive speech.
(See 549)
persuasion  An ongoing process in which verbal and nonverbal messages shape, reinforce, and change people's responses.
(See 541)
persuasive campaign  An ongoing series of related messages from speakers, newspapers, magazines, broadcasts, chat rooms, friends, and relatives that can change one's responses.
(See 541)
tests of evidence  Questions that can be used to test the validity of evidence.
(See 554)
ultimate goals  Purposes that a speaker wishes to fulfill with additional messages and more time.
(See 541)