Substance abuse is the
|A)||diagnosis given when recurrent substance use leads to significant harmful consequences.|
|B)||experience of clinically significant distress in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning when attempting to cease or reduce substance use.|
|C)||experience of significant maladaptive behavioral and psychological symptoms caused by the effect of a substance on the central nervous system.|
|D)||diagnosis given when substance use leads to physiological dependence or significant impairment or distress.|
Which of the following is not included in the diagnostic criteria for substance abuse?
|A)||use of a substance in situations where it is physically hazardous to do so|
|B)||failure to meet important obligations at work, school, or home|
|C)||developing increased tolerance to the substance, or developing withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not used|
|D)||legal problems that result from substance use|
Which of the following is not a criterion for substance dependence?
|A)||the substance is taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended|
|B)||there has been no attempt to cut down or control substance use|
|C)||a great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance, use the substance, or recover from its effects|
|D)||important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use|
Which of the following routes of administration is least likely to lead to overdose?
The loss of intellectual abilities, including memory, abstract thinking, judgment, and problem solving, as well as personality changes, is known as
|A)||fetal alcohol syndrome.|
The two syndromes that make up the category called "alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorders" are
|A)||blackouts and delirium tremens.|
|B)||alcohol-induced dementia and Wernicke's encephalopathy.|
|C)||Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's psychosis.|
|D)||blackouts and alcohol-induced dementia.|
Which of the following statements about cultural differences in alcohol disorders is true?
|A)||Lower rates of alcohol problems in China and Taiwan are partly due to the fact that 50% of Asians carry an enzyme that when present, causes a flushed face and heart palpitations during alcohol ingestion.|
|B)||Higher rates of alcohol problems occur among older white men than among older African-American men, but lower rates occur among young whites when compared to young African-Americans.|
|C)||Higher rates of alcohol problems in South Korea, as compared to other Asian countries, may be partly due to the Confucian moral ethic, which condones drunken behavior and views alcohol as appropriate used for personal indulgence.|
|D)||Native Americans may have lower rates of alcohol problems than African-Americans and Hispanics because of cultural proscriptions against creating disharmony between a person and his or her spirit.|
Which of the following explains why the rate of alcohol problems is higher among older people?
|A)||Older people metabolize alcohol at a slower rate, which causes more rapid intoxication than that seen in younger people.|
|B)||Older people have more free time and financial security than younger people, which makes it possible for them to tolerate hangovers and the negative effects of alcohol.|
|C)||Older people have grown up with fewer prohibitions against alcohol use and abuse because alcohol problems were much less common during their younger years.|
|D)||The rates of alcohol problems are actually lower, not higher, among older people.|
Which of the following substances are naturally found in the human body?
Which of the following is a biological cause for craving a substance?
|A)||neural sensitization in the mesolimbic dopamine system|
|B)||neural desensitization in the mesolimbic dopamine system|
|D)||increased levels of serotonin|
Which of the following statements about smoking is true?
|A)||The concordance rate for smoking behavior is about the same in dizygotic twins as it is in monozygotic twins.|
|B)||Nicotine produces an enzyme that degrades dopamine, leading to less of it at the synapse.|
|C)||People with certain polymorphisms in the DRD2 or SLC6A3 genes are more likely than people without polymorphisms to become smokers.|
|D)||Acetylcholine receptors are the point of entry for nicotine into the central nervous system and moderate the reinforcing effects of nicotine.|
Which of the following statements about alcohol is true?
|A)||Depression among alcoholics tends to remain even after they become abstinent.|
|B)||Adolescents who are depressed are more likely to become alcoholics than adolescents who are not depressed.|
|C)||Compared to people without alcohol problems, family history studies have found higher rates of depression among the offspring of people with alcohol problems.|
|D)||Alcohol-related disorders are more common in societies with few legal or cultural restrictions on alcohol use.|
Which of the following drugs effectively blocks the "high" in both alcohol and heroin?
Disulfiram has been shown
|A)||to reduce alcohol consumption in animals.|
|B)||to block the effects of heroin.|
|C)||to make a person extremely sick if he or she takes even one drink.|
|D)||to block the effects of alcohol.|
In which of the following treatments are alcoholics encouraged to experience their favorite type of alcohol by holding a glass to their lips and smelling the alcohol but are not allowed to drink any of the alcohol?
|A)||aversive classical conditioning|
|B)||cue exposure and response prevention|
|C)||covert sensitization therapy|
|D)||controlled drinking treatment|
Which of the following people would be diagnosed with a substance-related disorder?
|A)||Someone who abuses alcohol but is not dependent on it.|
|B)||Someone who inhales antifreeze and experiences significant anxiety and hallucinations as a result.|
|C)||Someone who smokes rat poison and experiences mild, transient effects from it.|
|D)||Someone who uses opioids, but who does not exhibit significant tolerance or withdrawal symptoms.|
The ethnic group at highest risk for alcohol abuse and dependence is:
The most widely-used illicit substance(s) in the world is/are:
Delirium tremens can occur after withdrawal from:
The sons of alcoholics have been found to exhibit all of the following characteristics except:
|A)||lower reactivity to moderate doses of alcohol.|
|B)||low physiological tolerance to alcohol, which leads them to achieve intoxication easily.|
|C)||less intoxication in their cognitive and motor performance.|
|D)||significantly greater likelihood of becoming an alcoholic.|