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Student Edition
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A Writer's Workshop: Crafting Paragraphs, Building Essays, 2/e

Bob Brannan, Johnson County Community College

ISBN: 0072882220
Copyright year: 2006

Table of Contents



      *New to this Edition
      Preface
      Unit I: Getting Our Feet Wet
        1. Practicing the Writing Process
          How Do We Begin to Write?
            Questions to Ask at the Start of a Writing Project
          After Breaking Ground—into the Writing Process
          Steps in the Writing Process
            Discovering Ideas
            Freewriting
            Clustering
            Brainstorming (Listing)
            Journalist's Questions
            Patterns of Development
            Journal Entries
            Considering Your Audience
          Organizing Ideas
            Rough Outlines
            Formal Outlines
          Drafting
            Preparing a Workspace and Moving Ahead
            Breaking Out of Writer's Block
          Revising
            Revision Priority List
            Group Revising
            How the Writer Can Help the Reader
            How the Reader Can Help the Writer
          Editing
            How to Edit
            Major Categories of Mechanical Errors
          Proofreading
            How to Proofread and Prepare Your Final Manuscript
          Diagnostic Writing Assignments
          Chapter Summary
        2. Making the Most of Reading
          Is There a Method to Effective Reading?
            Methods for Reading
          Prereading: Preparing to Understand
            Signposts
            Beginnings and Endings
            Connections: Linking New to Previous Knowledge
          Reading: Processing Ideas
            Anticipating and Reacting
            Visualizing
            Linking New to Previous Knowledge
          Reading: Focusing and Recording Main Ideas
            Looking for Thesis, Topic, and Summary Sentences
            Focusing on Primary (Essential) Examples
            Expecting to Find Repeated Material
            Noticing the Patterns of Development
            Learning to Annotate, Outline, Summarize, and Paraphrase
            Organizing Body Paragraphs
          Postreading: Retaining Ideas
          Chapter Summary
      Unit II: Working with the Paragraph
        3. Introducing the Paragraph
          What Is a Paragraph?
          Writing a Topic Sentence
            How to Write a Topic Sentence
            Focusing Topic Sentences
            Revising Topic Sentences
          Developing Body Paragraphs
            Kinds of Support
            Sufficient Support
            Relevant Support—Achieving Unity
            Clear Support
          Writing a Concluding Sentence
            How to Write a Concluding Sentence
            Expanded Thought
          Organizing Body Paragraphs
          Connecting Sentences—Achieving Coherence
            Methods for Achieving Coherence
            Transitions
            Repetition
            Synonyms
            Pronouns
            Reference to Main Ideas
          Selecting a Title
            How to Write Effective Titles
            What to Avoid in Titles
          Formatting
          Chapter Summary
        4. Revising Paragraphs
          Revising Paragraphs
          Revising First-Stage Drafts: Chapters 8-11
          Revising Second-Stage Drafts
          Editing
            Editing Review
            Editing Problems for All Patterns of Development
            A Special Note on Verb Tense in Narrative
          Proofreading
            How to Proofread and Prepare Your Final Manuscript
        5. Picturing A Place
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Descriptive
            Paragraphs
            Using Specific, Concrete Language
            Establishing and Strengthening the Dominant Impression
            Organizing Descriptions by Using a Spatial Arrangement
            Locating the Reader in Space and Time
          Descriptive Paragraphs: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “Untitled” by Andrea Turner
            “Waking Up the Right Way” by Stacey Becker
            Questions for Paragraph Analysis
          Writing a Descriptive Paragraph
          The Assignment
          Establishing Audience and Purpose
          Working Through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising First-Stage Drafts
            Revising Second and Final Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          “Our Family Outing” by Jo Lucas
          Final-Draft Checklist
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        6. Telling Your Own Story
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Narrative Paragraphs
            Creating Conflict, Suspense, and a Climax
            Finding the Significance of a Story
            Building a Story That Shows as well as Tells
            Using Effective Dialogue
            Including Metaphors and Similes to Add Clarity and Interest
          Narrative Paragraphs: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “Sixteen and Mother of Twelve” by Leilani Houston
            “What a Joke!” by Anna Suarez
            Questions for Paragraph Analysis
          Writing a Narrative Paragraph
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising First-Stage Drafts
            Revising Second and Final Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          “Do Unto Others” by Chris Potts
          Final-Draft Checklist
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        7. Illustrating through Examples
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Illustration Paragraphs
            Organizing Examples through Subtopic Sentences
            Arranging Examples by Order of Importance
            Linking Sentences
            Developing Examples
          Illustration Paragraphs: Looking Closely at Student Models
          “Teaching with Whips” by Jeong Yi
          “Dying to Have Fun” by Thomas Kellogg
          “Dangers in a Deli” by Catherine Denning
          Questions for Paragraph Analysis
          Writing an Illustration Paragraph
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising First-Stage Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          “Nothing Worthwhile Comes Easy” by William Ross
          Final-Draft Checklist
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        8. Creating and Explaining Groups
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Classification Paragraphs
            Using a Single Organizing Principle
            Selecting an Organizing Principle
            Dividing and Developing Topics
            Completing the Groups
          Classification Paragraphs: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “Mall Crashers” by Chanthan Srouch
            “Shopping the Easy Way” by Ann Nall
            Questions for Paragraph Analysis
          Writing a Classification Paragraph
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          “I Do” by Richard Bailey
          Final-Draft Checklist
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        9. Recognizing Causes, Explaining Effects
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Cause or Effect Paragraphs
            Discovering Causes and Effects
            Developing Causes and Effects
            Choosing Real Causes and Effects
            Thinking Critically
          Cause or Effect Paragraphs: Analyzing Student Models
          “Making the Promise Last” by Gebdao Kaiwalweroj
          “The Thousand-Dollar Lesson” by Lucas Eimers
          Questions for Paragraph Analysis
          Writing a Cause or Effect Paragraph
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          “Building Memories” by Brian Peraud
          Final-Draft Checklist
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        10. Explaining Activities: Doing Them, Understanding Them
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Process-Analysis Paragraphs
            Listing All Necessary Steps
            Explaining Steps Thoroughly—Giving Reasons and Warnings
            Defining All Terms
            Avoiding Monotonous Sentence Patterns
          Process Analysis Paragraphs: Analyzing Student Models
            “A Boy's Best Friend” by Steve Oh
            “Recipe for a Red-Hot Sunday” by Jeff Coburn
            Questions for Paragraph Analysis
          Writing a Process Analysis Paragraph
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          “Staying Alive” by Carla Schumann
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        11. Explaining Similarities and Differences
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs
            Making a Meaningful Comparison or Contrast
            Making an Interesting Comparison or Contrast
            Developing Topics Thoroughly
            Using Transitions and Other Connectors
          Comparison and Contrast Paragraphs: Analyzing Student Models
          “Two Different Worlds” by David Harrison
          “Breakin' Through” by Gina Rizzo
          Questions for Paragraph Analysis
          Writing a Comparison or Contrast Paragraph
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          “The Joy of Simple Living” by Ana Maria Sauer
          Final-Draft-Checklist
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
      Unit III: Working with the Essay
        12. Introducing the Essay
          What Is an Essay?
            Essay Form
            Introductory Paragraphs
          Thesis Sentence
            Limiting the Thesis Sentence
            Making a Clear Statement about the Topic
            Polishing the Thesis Sentence
          Developing Introductions
            Methods for Developing Introductory Paragraphs
          Hooks
          Avoiding Weak Introductions
          Body Paragraphs
            Topic and Summary Sentences in Body Paragraphs
            Developing Body Paragraphs
            Arranging Body Paragraphs within Essays
            Using Outlines
          Concluding Paragraphs
            Lead Sentences and Summaries
            Developing Conclusions
            Concluding Paragraphs with Expanded Thoughts
          Avoiding Weak Conclusions
          Creating Coherence
          Selecting a Title
          Chapter Summary
        13. Revising Essays
          Revising Essays
          Revising First-Stage Drafts
            Common First-Stage Draft Issues
          Revising Second-Stage Drafts
            Common Second-Stage Draft Issues
          Editing
            Common Editing Problems
          Proofreading
          How to Proofread and Prepare Your Final Manuscript
          Final-Draft Checklist
        14. Expanding Paragraphs into Essays
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Illustrating Essays through Examples (Illustration)
          Illustration Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “The Jobs from Hell” by Eric Latham
            “Teaching with Whips” by Jeong Yi
            Key Elements of Illustration Essays
          Creating and Explaining Groups (Classification)
          Classification Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “A Skill beyond Price” by Ho-Chul Sung
            “Shopping the Easy Way” by Ann Nall
            Key Elements of Classification Essays
          Explaining Causes and Effects (Cause and Effect)
          Cause and Effect Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “My Friend Who Gave Up on Life” by Julie Hammond
            “The Thousand-Dollar Lesson” by Lucas Eimers
            Key Elements of Cause-and- Effect Essays
          Explaining Activities, Doing Them, Understanding Them (Process Analysis)
          Process Analysis Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “Jokers Wild” by Michael Feldman
            “A Boy's Best Friend” by Steve Oh
            Key Elements in Process-Analysis Essays
          Explaining Similarities and Differences (Comparison and Contrast)
          Comparison/Contrast Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “I'll Park. You Get the Tickets—Hurry!” by Hugh Edwards
            “Break on through to the Other Side” by Gina Rizzo
            Key Elements in Comparison and Contrast Essays
          Questions for Essay Analysis
          Writing an Essay
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising Drafts
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        15. Defining Terms, Clarifying Ideas
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Definition Essays
            Defining with Synonyms
            Defining by Negation
            Defining with Comparisons
            Defining Formally
            Creating Extended Definitions
          Definition Essays: Analyzing Student Models
            “Finding Home” by April Griffin
            “Deaf, Not Dumb” by Bruce Hayworth
            Questions for Essay Analysis
          Writing a Definition Essay
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
            “Get Wet” by Kyle Jennings
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        16. Writing Persuasively
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Persuasive Essays
            Defining the Issue
            Presenting Reasons and Providing Support
            Connecting with the Audience
            Avoiding Errors in Logic
            Countering Opposition
          Persuasive Essays: Looking Closely at Student Models
            “Just Say No” by Marisa Youmbi
            “Something for Nothing?” by Matt Smith
            Questions for Essay Analysis
          Writing a Persuasive Essay
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting Suggestions
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          “Should Our Grandparents Be Driving?” by Erica Hood
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
        17. Taking Essay Exams
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Developing Skills, Exploring Ideas in Writing for Essay Exams
            Analyzing the Question
            Writing Relevant, Specific Responses
            Writing Essay-Exam Introductory Paragraphs
            Writing Essay-Exam Concluding Paragraphs
            Writing a Complete Essay-Exam Response
          Essay-Exam Responses: Analyzing Student Models
            “Clinging by Their Fingers” by Adam Fletcher
            “Natural Selection” by Emma Perez
            Questions for Essay Analysis
          Writing an Essay-Exam Response
          The Assignment
          Establishing Your Audience and Purpose
          Working through the Writing Assignment
            Discovering Ideas
            Prewriting out of Class
            Prewriting in Class
            Organizing Ideas
            Drafting
            Revising Drafts
          Annotated Student Model
          Chapter Summary
          Alternate Writing Assignments
      Unit IV: Polishing Style
        18. Creating Sentence Variety
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Varying the Length of Sentences
          Varying the Types of Sentences
          Coordinating Words in Sentences
          Subordinating Words in Sentences
            Adjective Clauses—Nonessential
            Adjective Clauses—Essential
            Adverb Clauses
          Varying Sentences with Questions, Commands, and Exclamations
            Questions
            Commands and Exclamations
          Varying the Beginnings of Sentences
          Varying Sentence Beginnings with Adverbs
          Varying Sentence Beginnings with Phrases
            Prepositional Phrases
            Participial Phrase—Present Tense
            Participial Phrase—Past Tense
            Absolute Phrase
            Infinitive Phrase
            Appositive Phrase
          Inverted Sentences
          Chapter Summary
        19. Choosing the Most Effective Word
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Specific and Concrete Language
            Choosing Specific Words
            Choosing Concrete Words
          Writing Concisely
            Revising to Eliminate Redundant Expressions
            Revising to Reduce Empty and Padded Phrases
            Removing Excessive Qualifiers and Emphasizers
            Removing Unnecessary Examples, Details, and Explanations
            Reducing Inflated Clauses and Phrases
          Choosing Language for Tone
            Revising Unneeded Big Words
            Avoiding Slang and Colloquial Expressions
            Controlling Denotation and Connotation
            Eliminating Biased Language
            Using Contractions Carefully
          Using Figures of Speech
            Metaphor, Simile, and Personification
            Overstatement, Understatement, and Irony
            Emphatic Repetition
          Chapter Summary
      Unit V: Practicing Sentence Sense
        20. Working with Sentence Parts
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Parts of Speech
            Verbs
            Nouns
            Pronouns
            Adjectives
            Adverbs
            Prepositions
            Conjunctions
            Interjections
          Word Shifts
          Verbs, Subjects, and Simple Sentences
            Recognizing Verbs
            Recognizing Subjects
          Phrases
            Prepositional Phrases
            Infinitive Phrases
            Participial Phrases
            Gerund Phrases
            Absolute Phrases
            Appositive Phrases
          Clauses
            Noun Clauses
            Adjective Clauses
            Adverb Clauses
          Sentence Types
            Simple Sentences
            Compound Sentences
            Complex Sentences
            Compound–Complex Sentences
          A Writer's Basic Sentence Grammar
        21. Coordination, Subordination, and Parallelism
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
            Using Coordination
            Excessive Coordination
          Subordination
            Adverb Clauses
            Adjective Clauses
            Excessive Subordination
          Parallelism
            Series
            Lists and Outlines
            Pairs
        22. Run-Ons, Comma Splices, and Sentence Fragments
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices
            Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices with End Punctuation
            Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices with Coordination
            Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices with Semicolons
            Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices with Subordination
          Sentence Fragments
            Phrase Fragments
            Subordinate Clause Fragments
        23. Verbs: Form and Agreement
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          The Principal Parts of Verbs and Verb Tenses
            Three Primary Verb Tenses
            Helping Verbs
            Perfect Tenses
            Progressive Tenses
            Irregular Verbs
            Problem Verbs
            Verb Tense Sequences and Unneeded Tense Shifts
          Subject/Verb Agreement
            Intervening Words
            Compound Subjects
            Indefinite Pronouns
            Or, Either/Or, Neither/Nor
            Relative Pronouns as Subjects
            Linking Verbs
            Changing the Order of Subjects and Verbs
            Collective Nouns
            Plural Nouns/Plural Verbs
            “False” Plural Nouns
        24. Pronouns: Reference, Agreement, and Form
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Referring Clearly to a Specific Antecedent
          Agreeing in Number with the Antecedent
            Indefinite Pronouns
            Collective Nouns
            Compound Antecedents
          Choosing Proper Pronoun Case
            Subjective Case
            Objective Case
            Possessive Case
          Solving Common Problems
            Compounds
            Comparisons
            Who/Whom
          Remaining Consistent in Person
        25. Adjectives and Adverbs: Words that Describe
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Adjectives and Related Word Groups
          Adverbs and Related Word Groups
          Comparative and Superlative Forms
          Avoiding Overuse of Modifiers
          Avoiding Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers
        26. Commas, Other Punctuation, and Mechanics
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Commas
          The Big Three Comma Categories
            Commas That Separate Introductory Words and Word Groups
            Commas That Set Off Nonessential Words and Word Groups
            Commas That Separate Main Clauses
          Secondary Comma Categories
            Items in a Series
            Coordinate Adjectives
            Contrasting Expressions
            Misleading Expressions
            Numbers, Addresses, Place Names, Dates, Direct Address
            Avoiding Incorrect Commas
          Other Punctuation and Mechanics
            Semicolon
            Colon
            Dash
            Parentheses
            Quotation Marks
            Apostrophe
            Hyphen
            Capitalization
            Numbers
            Underlining and Italicizing
        27. Spelling and Sound-Alike Words
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Some Suggestions for Help with Spelling
          Reviewing Vowels and Consonants
          Some Useful Spelling Patterns
            Doubling the Final Consonant
            Dropping or Keeping the Final e
            Changing or Not Changing the Final y to i
            Forming Plurals: -s or -es
            Using ie or ei
            List of Frequently Misspelled Words
          Sound-Alike Words
        28. ESL Concerns
          What Are We Trying to Achieve and Why?
          Count and Noncount Nouns
          Articles
          Verbs
            Word Order
            Three Irregular Verbs— to Do, to Have, to Be
            Modals
            Stative Verbs
            Two-Word (Phrasal) Verbs
          Prepositions
            Prepositions of Place
            Prepositions of Time
            Idiomatic Phrases
          Ordering Adjectives
      Unit VI: Additional Readings
        Description
        The Great Tide Pool, John Steinbeck
        Narration
        The Dare, Roger Hoffmann
        Illustration
        Rambos of the Road, Martin Gottfried
        Classification
        The Ways of Meeting Oppression, Martin Luther King, Jr.
        *Friends, Good Friends, and Such Good Friends, Judith Viorst
        Cause and Effect
        Two by Two, We'll Fill the Planet, Benjamin Zuckerman
        Black Men and Public Space, Brent Staples
        Process Analysis
        *The Fine Art of Complaining, Caroline Rego
        Comparison and Contrast
        Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts, Bruce Catton
        A Nice Place to Visit, Russell Baker
        Definition
        *They've Gotta Keep It: People Who Save Everything, Lynda W. Warren and Jonnae C. Ostrom
        What Is a Dad?, Bob Brannan
        Persuasion
        Abortion, Right and Wrong, Rachel Richardson Smith
        What Is Biodiversity and Why Should We Care About It?, Donella Meadows
        Appendixes
          Appendix 1
            *Writing a Research Essay
          Appendix 2
            Improvement Chart
        Credits
        Index
Brannan: A Writer's Workshop

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