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Animal Diversity, 5/e
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Multiple Choice Quiz

Please answer all questions



1

A(n) ________ includes all of the communities in a certain area, and the abiotic environment.
A)population
B)community
C)lithosphere
D)ecosystem
2

The number of species in a particular community is known as
A)complexity.
B)diversity.
C)the niche.
D)the intrinsic factor.
3

If resources are not in short supply, ________ would not be expected to occur.
A)mutualism
B)amensalism
C)competition
D)predation
4

Due to competition, an animal's ________ may be observed in nature.
A)fundamental niche.
B)realized niche.
C)deme.
D)habitat.
5

Frogs of the same species live in two ponds that are close, and the frogs do mate with each other, pond to pond. However, they do not interact to a great degree. They are considered to be members of different
A)populations.
B)communities.
C)demes.
D)ecosystems.
6

Frogs of species A are only found in marginal marshy habitats and frogs of species B inhabit the prime habitats. Experimental removal of frog species B showed that the frogs of species A moved into the prime habitats. Therefore, originally, the species A frogs were inhabiting their
A)deme.
B)fundamental niche.
C)realized niche.
D)absolute niche.
7

The study of population structure is
A)demography.
B)etymology.
C)ecology.
D)helminthology.
8

Modular animals are colonies of genetically identical organisms produced
A)parthenogenically.
B)by asexual cloning.
C)only during estrus.
D)via internal fertilization.
9

Type III survivorship curves, characteristic of most invertebrates and vertebrates such as fish, shows
A)rapid mortality at early ages.
B)constant mortality during life.
C)rapid mortality at later ages.
D)none of the above.
10

In the equations describing population growth, r indicates the
A)intrinsic rate of increase.
B)carrying capacity.
C)number in the population.
D)death rate.
11

In the equations describing population growth, K indicates the
A)intrinsic rate of increase.
B)carrying capacity.
C)number in the population.
D)death rate.
12

Exponential growth may be graphed (time versus population size) in a(n) shaped curve.
A)S
B)K
C)C
D)J
13

The difference between the logistic and the exponential curves is the inclusion of a limiting factor that takes into account
A)r.
B)K.
C)t.
D)N.
14

Predator/prey and parasite/host relationships are classically considered to be
A)+ +.
B)+ -.
C)- 0.
D)- -.
15

Amensal relationships are
A)+ +.
B)+ -.
C)- 0.
D)0 0.
16

A relationship that forms from past competition between two species in which on species benefits but the other experiences little harm is known as
A)commensalism.
B)amensalism.
C)mutualism.
D)parasitism.
17

Studies of different species of birds that live in forests have shown that to avoid competition, the birds will use the limiting resource in a slightly different way (e.g. foraging at different heights of the trees, or picking up insects of slightly different sizes). This is known as
A)niche overlap.
B)character displacement.
C)competitive exclusion.
D)niche adjustment.
18

Birds which divide up similar resources as described in the previous question may be described as belonging to a
A)deme.
B)niche.
C)guild.
D)population.
19

The relationship between predator and prey is best characterized by
A)character displacement.
B)functional niches.
C)realized niches.
D)coevolution.
20

A species which is of utmost importance in a community, such that its absence changes the entire character of the community is called the
A)keystone species.
B)top dog.
C)primary predator.
D)primary guild.
21

A ________ links trophic levels and depicts the transfers of energy and materials.
A)food web
B)pyramid of numbers
C)pyramid of energy
D)pyramid of biomass
22

Green plants are known as
A)primary producers.
B)primary consumers.
C)secondary producers.
D)tertiary producers.
23

Decomposers are primarily ________ and fungi.
A)green plants
B)diatoms
C)bacteria
D)kelp
24

The total amount of energy fixed by green plants, not including respiratory losses, is known as
A)net productivity.
B)lost energy.
C)chemoautotrophic energy.
D)gross productivity.
25

Approximately ________ percent of the energy available at one trophic level is converted into new biomass in the next trophic level.
A)5
B)10
C)25
D)75
26

After analyzing the pyramid of energy, it could be said that it would be most prudent to
A)become a vegetarian.
B)raise your own cows in your backyard.
C)dig out a fish pond in your back yard.
D)ignore all recommendations, and eat what you want.
27

Nutrients are exchanged between the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems through
A)energy pyramids.
B)food webs.
C)biogeochemical cycles.
D)predation.
28

There are many exceptions to the classic pyramids, but the pyramid of ________ may never be inverted.
A)numbers
B)biomass
C)carnivores
D)energy
29

The largest and most inclusive ecosystem is the lithosphere.
A)True
B)False
30

The physical place where an organism lives is its niche.
A)True
B)False
31

Age structure can indicate whether a population is increasing, stable, or declining. In general terms, a population with a very broad base would be expected to be stable.
A)True
B)False
32

Human populations have exhibited an exponential growth curve.
A)True
B)False
33

Density dependent factors are typically biotic and aid in maintaining a population near or at the carrying capacity.
A)True
B)False
34

Competitive relationships reduce the fitness of both partners, commensal relationships increase the fitness of both partners.
A)True
B)False
35

The principle of niche overlap states that situations in which two organisms that share identical niches will eventually result in one species completely outcompeting the other species.
A)True
B)False
36

Predator and prey populations typically cycle up and down. The longest documented example is that of the lynx and the hare.
A)True
B)False
37

Organisms which are potentially prey often are camouflaged, and this is called crypsis.
A)True
B)False
38

Fleas and lice are ectoparasites; lampreys and tapeworms are both endoparasites.
A)True
B)False
39

Biogeochemical cycles refer to the exchanges between the living and abiotic components of various nutrients.
A)True
B)False
40

Parthenogenesis is a type of asexual reproduction where females give birth to clonal female offspring.
A)True
B)False
41

It would be expected that r would be greater for a human than a bacterium.
A)True
B)False
42

One negative aspect of commensal relationships may be seen if one of the members of the relationship becomes extinct; then the extant species may be negatively affected.
A)True
B)False
43

The key term associated with competition is a limited resource.
A)True
B)False
44

A niche in ecological terms refers to organisms that share a common place in the environment, including their shared habitat and feeding habits.
A)True
B)False
45

If you find that a number of snakes are all venomous and share a similar coloration, you may guess that this is a form of mimicry.
A)True
B)False
46

Interactions among demes resulting in gene flow and recolonization is referred to as
A)demography.
B)parthenogenesis.
C)semelparity.
D)metapopulation dynamics.
47

An organism capable of reproducing more than one time during its life history is referred to as
A)iterparous.
B)parthenogenic.
C)semelparous.
D)a cohort.
48

Abiotic extrinisic factors such as floods and fires are said to be ____ because the magnitude of their effect is not related to population size.
A)density dependent.
B)density independent.
C)limiting factors.
D)competition based.
49

Harmless species that resemble poisoness or harmful species are referred to as
A)keystone predators.
B)endoparasites.
C)mimics.
D)host species.
50

Global decline in biodiveristy is primarily a consequence of
A)disease.
B)habitat fragmentation and loss.
C)predation.
D)recreational hunting.