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Multiple Choice Quiz
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1
Jean Piaget developed and proposed his theories of cognitive development during the:
A)late 1700s.
B)early to mid-1880s.
C)late 1880s.
D)mid-1900s.
2
Jean Piaget gathered the information for his theories about cognitive development by:
A)reviewing the literature on cognitive development.
B)surveying thousands of parents.
C)observing his own children.
D)testing hundreds of children in his laboratory.
3
Which of the following is an example of a cognitive scheme?
A)sorting by color
B)grasping a rattle
C)looking at an object
D)sucking a pacifier
4
According to Piaget, the incorporation of new information into existing schemes is called:
A)operational thought.
B)equilibration.
C)accommodation.
D)assimilation.
5
Tim likes to explore his parents' house through touch. One day he touches the oven and burns his hand. Tim learns that although some objects are safe to touch, ovens are not. According to Piaget, this is an example of:
A)assimilation.
B)accommodation.
C)negative reinforcement.
D)positive reinforcement.
6
How many stages of cognitive development did Piaget identify?
A)three
B)four
C)five
D)six
7
The Piagetian stage during which understanding of the world comes about through sensory experiences and motor actions is the:
A)sensorimotor stage.
B)preoperational stage.
C)concrete operational stage.
D)formal operational stage.
8
According to Piaget, during the first sensorimotor substage, infants' behaviors are:
A)reflexive.
B)maladaptive.
C)unchanging.
D)reinforced.
9
When D'Andre was 5 months old, he looked at a toy train, but when his view of the train was blocked, he did not search for it. Now that he is 9 months old, he does search for it, reflecting his development of:
A)object permanence.
B)self-differentiation.
C)assimilation.
D)schemata.
10
The first substage of preoperational thought is the:
A)intuitive thought substage.
B)concrete thought substage.
C)symbolic function substage.
D)conservation substage.
11
Piaget's most famous conservation task study involved:
A)identical beakers of liquid.
B)rows of coins.
C)balls of clay.
D)shapes and numbers.
12
Much of the new research on cognitive development in children suggests that Piaget's theory:
A)was accurate.
B)was wrong.
C)needs to be modified.
D)was too specific.
13
The Piagetian concept in which an infant searches for a hidden object in a familiar location rather than looking for it in a new location is called:
A)object permanence.
B)the AB error.
C)conservation.
D)familiar operations.
14
In talking with Grandma on the phone, Jake suddenly exclaims, "Oh, look at that pretty red bird!" When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Jake says, "Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!" He finally gets frustrated and says good-bye. This is an example of:
A)centration.
B)egocentrism.
C)intuitive thought.
D)symbolic function.
15
A young child might be heard saying, "The moon is smiling at me." The child's belief that the moon has "human" qualities and is capable of action is referred to as:
A)humanism.
B)conservation.
C)animism.
D)seriation.
16
In Piaget's theory, "operations" refer to:
A)physical behaviors.
B)words and visual images.
C)abstract levels of thinking.
D)internalized mental actions.
17
A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next is called:
A)equilibration.
B)conservation.
C)transitivity.
D)knowledge transfer.
18
_______ is clearly evidenced in young children's lack of conservation when they focus their attention on one characteristic (such as height or length) to the exclusion of other characteristics.
A)Egocentrism
B)Centration
C)Accommodation
D)Operationalism
19
To understand the relationships among relatives on a family tree, children need to be able to use the skill of:
A)seriation.
B)decoding.
C)classification.
D)mental reversibility.
20
Tyrell understands that his father can also be a son and a brother, all at the same time. This suggests that Tyrell is in the:
A)sensorimotor stage.
B)preoperational stage.
C)concrete operational stage.
D)formal operational stage.
21
During what stage of development can a child take a pile of rocks and place them in order from largest to smallest?
A)preoperational thought
B)concrete operations
C)formal operations
D)intuitive reasoning
22
Reversible mental actions are called:
A)focal points.
B)symbolic thought.
C)abstractions.
D)operations.
23
According to Piaget, _______ operational thought comes into play between 1 and 15 years of age.
A)concrete
B)formal
C)primary
D)secondary
24
In Piagetian terms, the cognitive ability to solve problems that develop in adolescence is called:
A)trial-and-error reasoning.
B)hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
C)concrete thinking.
D)transitivity.
25
Research suggests that the age at which individuals acquire conservation skills is associated with:
A)their language skills.
B)the intelligence level of their parents.
C)the skills of their siblings.
D)the degree to which their culture provides relevant practices.
26
According to David Elkind, personal fable and imaginary audience are parts of adolescent:
A)co-regulation.
B)expression.
C)egocentrism.
D)object permanence.
27
Stephanie, a 15-year-old high school student, is afraid to go to school because of a small pimple on her forehead. This exemplifies the concept of:
A)personal fable.
B)imaginary audience.
C)realism.
D)assimilation.
28
Which of the following educational practices is supported by Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
A)Teachers should treat children as passive receptacles.
B)Assessment should focus on the use of standardized tests.
C)Teachers should require rote learning that is tested frequently.
D)Classrooms should be less structured allowing for discovery learning.
29
Developmentalists who argue that Piaget got some things right but that his theory needs considerable revision are called:
A)neo-Piagetians.
B)behaviorists.
C)structuralists.
D)nativists.
30
Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development is similar to Piaget's theory in that it:
A)emphasizes that children actively construct their knowledge and understanding.
B)describes how children develop by interacting with the physical world.
C)proposes four stages of development that are age-related.
D)emphasizes how children develop through social interaction.
31
Tasks in the upper limit of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) are ones:
A)a child can perform on his or her own.
B)that are too difficult for a child to perform without assistance.
C)that require intuitive thought.
D)that require deductive reasoning.
32
According to Lev Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD), learning is:
A)achieved by discovering which answers will lead to rewards.
B)achieved by assimilating new understandings to accommodate the demands of the world.
C)affected by how the environment and genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.
D)a social activity between a less knowledgeable child and another adult or child who is more knowledgeable.
33
A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development if:
A)the toddler has mastered all the skills necessary.
B)parents or teachers do not interfere.
C)the task is more difficult than the child can do alone.
D)the toddler needs little or no help from a parent or teacher.
34
_____ occurs when a teacher adjusts his or her level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student.
A)Modeling
B)Assimilation
C)Scaffolding
D)Transference
35
Which of the following reflects Lev Vygotsky's beliefs about language and thought?
A)Children who use a lot of private speech are usually less socially competent.
B)Children use internal speech earlier than they use external speech.
C)Language and thought initially develop together and then become independent.
D)All mental functions have social origins.
36
Latoya talks to herself often, especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Vygotsky would say Latoya is:
A)engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.
B)using private speech to organize and regulate her thinking.
C)functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development.
D)not effected by her social environment.
37
Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development best reflects a(n):
A)behaviorist approach.
B)information-processing approach .
C)structuralist approach.
D)social constructivist approach.
38
With respect to adult cognitive processes, psychologist K. Warner Schaie (1977) concluded that:
A)all adults enter a postformal operational stage involving more complex strategies.
B)many adults revert back to a pragmatic concrete stage as they age.
C)adults likely do not go beyond formal operational thought, but they do progress in how they use their intellect.
D)adults in certain careers (e.g., higher education) enter an intellectual operational stage.
39
Life-span development students often complain, "Why do we have to learn all of these theories? Why don't you just teach us the right one?" This complaint reflects:
A)absolute, dualistic thinking.
B)dualistic, reflective thinking.
C)reflective, relativistic thinking.
D)complete relativistic thinking.
40
Postformal thought is considered to be:
A)objective.
B)free from the influences of emotions.
C)abstract.
D)provisional.







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