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above-the-line costs  Production costs related to story and script, producer, director, and stars. The movie or program's other costs are below-the-line.
absolutist ethics  Position from which there is a clear-cut right or wrong response for every ethical decision.
academic journals  Periodicals that publish research in a variety of scholarly fields; also called scholarly journals.
accountability  The obligation to take responsibility, or account for, the consequences of one's actions. In media ethics, accountability involves the questions of who controls media practitioners and who has the power to punish them for ethical lapses.
account executive  Employee who coordinates the agency's services for the client.
accreditation  Certification by an industry association.
acquisition editor  An editor who obtains books to be published.
actuality  The sound of something actually happening; in radio, the sound of an event on location as it happens; sometimes called ambient sound.
actual malice  Reckless disregard for the truth of published, defamatory information.
ad broker  A liaison between advertisers and newspapers.
adjacency  The opportunity for an advertiser to place an ad near a particular article, at an extra cost.
ad-lib  Unscripted talking, usually by a broadcaster.
admonition  A judge's warning to jurors to consider only evidence presented in the courtroom.
adversarial relationship  A relationship in which two parties contend with or oppose each other. In the United States, the media are expected to have an adversarial relationship with the government so that they can serve a watchdog role.
advertorial  An advertisement written in the style of a news item or feature.
advocacy ads  Ads designed to affect public opinion or government policy.
advocacy journalism  News reports in which journalists openly and intentionally take sides on issues and express their opinions in reporting.
affiliates  Local stations that have a contractual relationship with the network but are not owned by the network.
agenda-setting theory  Theory that predicts that the amount of attention given to an issue in the media affects the level of importance assigned to it by the public.
airbrush  Pen-shaped tool that sprays a fine mist of ink or paint; used to retouch photos.
a la carte pricing  Charging customers only for those cable channels they choose to receive.
aliterates  Those who are able to read but do not.
alternative press  Publications that provide a different viewpoint on the news, usually one that is politically radical or otherwise out of the mainstream.
amplitude modulation (AM)  Radio transmissions created by changing (modulating) the power (amplitude) of the carrier wave.
analog radio  Radio transmissions in which an electronic waveform represents the sound on a carrier wave.
analog recording  A recording technique in which representation of the sound wave is stored directly onto the recording medium.
anchor  The primary newsreader, who appears in the broadcast news studio.
anime  A distinctive style of animated film that has its roots in Japanese comic books.
antitrust laws  Laws that prohibit monopolistic practices in restraint of trade.
applied research  Media investigations devoted to practical, commercial purposes.
appropriation  Using an individual's image or name without permission for commercial purposes.
arranger  A professional who adapts a song for specific singers and other musical elements.
art director  The person who designs the physical look of a film.
artist and repertoire (A&R) executives  Specialists in the music industry who discover and develop the groups and performers.
artistic speech  Creative work, such as painting, dance, and literature.
ASCII characters  A code for representing English characters as numbers. Acronym for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
aspect ratio  The proportional relationship of the width of a screen image to its height. HDTV is 169; in the film studio era it was 43.
astroturf lobbying  Act of creating a fake grassroots organization as a public relations tactic.
asynchronous media  Media products that do not require an audience to gather at a particular time; for example, video on demand rather than appointment television.
attribution  The act of providing the source for information that appears in news reports.
audience research  The gathering of data about consumers targeted in an advertising campaign.
audimeter  An electronic meter, attached to the television set, that measures channel, time, and duration of tuning.
audiobooks  Books recorded on tape or some other medium.
Audion  A tube invented by Lee De Forest that was designed to pick up and amplify radio signals; also known as a vacuum tube.
audio news release  Recorded material ready for insertion into radio broadcasts.
Audit Bureau of Circulations  An association that verifies newspaper and magazine distribution.
auteur  A movie director with a distinctive style.
avant-garde  Experimental, abstract, independent, and innovative art, especially film art.
avatar  A character that represents an online user.
background  (1) Information that is not part of the news event but that helps to explain more about the event. (2) Another name for off-the-record.
backgrounders  In-depth articles contained in press kits.
backpack journalists  Television correspondents who work alone with a laptop computer and a handheld camera in the field.
bait-and-switch advertising  Technique in which a seller provides bait in the form of an advertised bargain and a switch when the customer is talked into a more expensive product.
balance  The basic journalistic principle of giving both sides of an argument so readers, listeners, or viewers can make their own evaluation.
bandwidth  Information-carrying capacity; quantity of data that can be transferred along cables or through wireless connections. Measured in bits per second (digital) or hertz (analog).
banners  Advertisements on a web page that link to an advertiser's site. They are the most common unit of advertising on the web.
barter syndication  A program distribution method in which the syndicator retains and sells a portion of the show's advertising time.
basic cable  Channels that are supplied with the least expensive program package the cable provider offers.
BBC  British Broadcasting Corporation, Britain's national broadcaster.
beat reporters  Journalists who find and write stories in a specialized area.
best boy  The gaffer's (lighting director's) assistant.
bibliophiles  Book lovers; heavy readers.
billings  The gross dollar amount that an advertising agency's client spends.
blacklisting  The practice of keeping a particular type of person from working in media and other industries.
blind booking  Forcing theater owners to reserve movies without previewing them.
block booking  Forcing theater owners to show movies with unknown stars in order to get movies with established stars.
blockbuster  All types of events, especially in terms of media products.
block programming  Series of programs with common demographic appeal scheduled one after another.
blogs  Online journals or diaries; see also weblogs.
blow-in cards  Postcard-sized business reply cards, usually containing subscription solicitations, that are inserted into magazines during the production process.
blue screen/green screen  A special-effects process in which actors work in front of a monochromatic (usually blue or green) background or screen. The background is then replaced (or matted) in postproduction with a digital image.
blurb  Brief laudatory comments that can be placed on the cover of a book.
bots  Short for robots, which are software programs capable of carrying out automated searches over the web; certain kinds of bots are called spiders or crawlers.
boutique agencies  Ad agencies that specialize in creative services.
branding  Creating a clear identity for a product that can be used for advertising and public relations.
broadcasting  Using wireless technology to instantaneously reach a wide audience.
B roll  Secondary footage used in an edited sequence, such as scene-setting background shots and footage of the interviewer used for cutaways.
browser  A software program that enables a user to move around the Internet.
buffering  Downloading and saving a video file at the same time it is being viewed.
bulletin board services (BBSs)  Early online news services.
bullet theory  Theory that implies that media effects flow directly from the media to an individual.
bump  To move the position of a story, either up or down the scale of priority or position in a news report.
byline  A line at the beginning of a news story giving the reporter's or news service's name.
cache  Area of a computer's memory or directory where the browser stores viewed web pages.
call letters  Broadcast station identifications assigned by the FCC.
cameo  A brief role or special screen appearance by a famous actor, director, or prominent person. From the Italian meaning "a carved precious stone with two layers of colors," evolving into "a small character or part that stands out from other minor parts."
canned news  Press releases designed to be inserted into newspaper feature or editorial sections with no change.
captcha  A program used to verify that a human, rather than a computer, is entering data.
casual readers  Those who enjoy reading but find the time to read only a few books a year.
categorical imperative  Immanuel Kant's term for the ethical guideline to look for principles that hold true in all situations.
catharsis theory  The idea that viewing violence actually reduces violent behavior.
cell technology  Radio-wave towers set up on a grid so that each area of the grid is supplied with radio service.
censorship  Any action that prohibits an act of expression from being made public.
centrist bias  Failure of the news media to report on radical points of view.
CGI  Computer-generated imagery used for visual effects in movies, television, and video games.
chain  One company that owns the same type of company in more than one market area.
change of venue  The moving of a trial to a different location.
channel  A specific spot on the electromagnetic spectrum that the FCC licenses to a station.
channel allocation  The placement of assigned spots on the electromagnetic spectrum to individual broadcast stations.
chapbook  Inexpensive early form of paperback containing mostly stories to be read for pleasure.
checkbook journalism  Paying news sources for their stories.
Chicano press  Part of Hispanic American newspaper industry that targets Mexican Americans.
chilling effect  Tendency of reporters to self-censor because of fear of possible legal action.
cineaste  A film/movie enthusiast or devotee.
cinematographer  The director of photography.
cinema verité  A style of documentary moviemaking with long takes, no narration, and little or no directorial control over the finished product. From the French meaning "true cinema" or "cinema truth."
circulation  Number of copies sold by newspapers and magazines.
circulation department  (1) The division of a magazine company charged with finding and keeping subscribers, managing the subscriber list, and promoting single-copy sales. (2) The division of a print media company that manages distribution and sales.
circulation waste  That part of advertising received by people whom the advertiser has no interest in reaching.
citizen journalism  Journalism outside the established media, usually by ordinary citizens without professional training, commonly practiced through blogs and social networking websites. Also called participatory journalism and networked journalism.
citizens' groups  Associations made up of members of the public to exert influence, such as on the media.
claymation  Animation of models constructed of moldable materials through stop-motion filming.
click-through  The success a website has in persuading a user to go to another site.
cloud computing  Using online software applications rather than tools and information housed on a personal computer.
clutter  The glut of ads that compete for the public's attention.
codex  A book written on parchment pages that were cut to one size and bound on one side. Developed by the Romans in the first century ad, the codex was the first book to resemble today's familiar form.
colorizing  Adding color to black-and-white films.
commentaries  On-air discussions about the news.
commercial speech  Advertising.
common carrier  The FCC's class of transmission systems— such as telephone, telegraph, and certain satellites—open to public use at uniform fees and generally not permitted to control content.
communication  The process of sharing messages.
community antenna television (CATV)  The first cable television systems, designed to give viewers in hard-to-reach areas satisfactory reception from their nearest broadcast television stations.
community relations  Public relations activities designed to aid and to maintain a beneficial image with groups on the local, national, or global level.
compact discs (CDs)  Plastic discs with digitally encoded music or speech read by lasers.
complementary copy  Editorial material designed to be paired with nearby advertising.
conflict of interest  Clash that occurs when an outside activity influences what a media professional does.
conglomerates  Large companies that own many different types of businesses.
conservative bias  A point of view that is generally purported to be pro–big business, anti–big government, proreligion, and anti-Democrat.
consumer advertising  Ads directed to the retail customer.
consumerism  (1) A movement for the protection of consumer rights. (2) The theory that an ever-expanding consumption of goods is advantageous to the economy. (3) Increasing consumption of goods prompted by feelings of satisfaction on the part of the purchaser.
consumer magazine  Any magazine that advertises and reports on consumer products and the consumer lifestyle.
contempt  Willful disobedience of the rules of a court or legislative body.
content analysis  A research method in which observers systematically analyze media subject matter.
continuance  Postponement of a trial.
continuity supervisor  Film crew member in charge of making sure shots match up; sometimes called the script supervisor.
contributing editor  Title given to a magazine's highest-paid freelance writers, who sometimes polish others' work.
controlled circulation  A system of distribution in which magazines are sent free to desired readers.
convergence  The merging of technologies, industries, and content, especially within the realms of computer, telephone, and mass media.
cookie  Identification code placed on user's computer by a web server; the message is then sent back to the server to identify the user each time the browser requests a page from the server.
copy editor  An editor who polishes a manuscript line by line and prepares it for typesetting.
copy research  Studies that test the effectiveness of ad content, or copy.
copyright  A legal right that grants to the owner of a work protection against unauthorized copying.
copyright law  Law that entitles the owner of a work to make and distribute reproductions of it.
corporate aid  Community relations activity in which a company helps society on a large scale.
corrective ads  Ads designed to rectify an inaccurate impression.
correlation  A situation in which two things occur at the same time, or in close succession, more often than chance would lead one to expect.
counteradvertising  Ads designed to fight an image that is not in the public interest.
CPM  Cost per thousand; guideline for the price of each exposure of a customer to an ad.
crawl  Type moving across the top or bottom of a television or movie screen.
credibility gap  The difference between what a government says and what the public believes to be true.
credit line  Text next to or following a story or picture acknowledging its source.
creeping bias  A subtle form of slanting that manifests itself in understated ways.
crisis management  Public relations activity used to repair a client's public image following an emergency.
crop  To cut unwanted portions from a photograph for publication, often changing the meaning that might be derived from the complete image.
cross-merchandizing  Promoting a product in one form to sell it in some other form.
crowdsourcing  (1) The act of outsourcing tasks, traditionally performed by an employee, to a large group of people or community through an open call online. For example, an online community might be invited to carry out a design task (also known as community-based design). (2) Using data that the public has collected to create a news story.
cub  Old-fashioned term for a trainee journalist. Also known as a rookie.
cue  (1) To prepare a piece of audio or video so that it starts at the beginning with the press of a button. (2) A signal in a studio that an item is about to start or end.
cultivation theory  Theory that the media shape how people view the world.
cultural imperialism  The displacement of a nation's customs with those of another country.
cultural studies  Research based on careful observation and thought rather than on controlled experiments or statistics.
culture  All the ways of living built up by a group of human beings and transmitted from one generation to another, often by media.
cumulative effects theory  Theory that media have profound effects over time through redundancy.
cutaway  Editing technique to break up a lengthy shot on one subject, to hide where footage has been cut, or to make a transition between two scenes.
cyber  As a prefix, a metaphor for anything pertaining to the Internet.
cybersquatting  The practice of registering trademarked domain names with hopes of reselling them to those who own the trademarks. Also, the practice of registering domain names for investment purposes rather than for legitimate websites.
data mining  The process of extracting patterns from information, especially online information about people.
dateline  A line at the top of a story stating the city and/or country from which the story was filed. Sometimes contains the date and time of filing.
dayparts  Time divisions that radio or TV stations make in the day in order to schedule appropriate programming.
deconstruct  To analyze or break down a media text into its component parts in order to understand it.
defamation  Communication that is false and injures a reputation.
demographic editions  Slightly different versions of the same magazine that go out to groups of subscribers with different shared characteristics.
demographics  Measurements of audience characteristics that are easily observed and labeled, such as age, gender, income, occupation, and ethnicity.
demos  Demonstration recordings sent in to record companies by artists' agents, managers, or by the artists themselves.
deregulation  The repeal of government rules and regulations.
desensitization  A process by which viewers of media violence develop callousness or emotional neutrality in the face of a real-life act of violence.
desktop publishing  Using a personal computer to act as writer, editor, and publisher.
developmental editor  An editor who works directly with the author during the writing of a book, going over each chapter and suggesting major revisions.
diegesis  The fictional world created by a film, television program, or story.
diffusion of innovations theory  Theory that different types of people will adopt new ideas at different times.
digital radio  Signal transmissions by assigned numbers rather than analog waves.
digital recording  A recording technique in which sound is broken down electronically into a numeric code.
digital rights management (DRM)  Technologies that limit the use of copyrighted materials, such as codes that make it impossible to copy a software file.
digital video recorders (DVRs)  Specialized computers with oversized hard drives on which video signals are saved.
digital watermark  Codes inserted into media content that authenticates the source of that content. For example, movie DVDs are sent to Oscar voters with individual watermarks to deter the voters from illegally posting the movie online where it can be pirated.
digitization  Encoding media products into a numbers-based form that can be read by computers.
dime novels  Inexpensive fiction, popular in the 1860s, that sold for 10 cents; also called pulp novels.
direct broadcast satellite (DBS)  Systems that deliver television programming to individual homes via satellite.
direct mail advertising  Advertising sent by mail.
director's cut  Version of film the director delivers to the studio.
directory  A type of search engine in which sites are arranged into categories by human editors.
disintermediation  Giving the user direct access to information that otherwise would require a mediator, such as a doctor or a lawyer, as when a user looks up medical or legal information online.
display ads  Print ads that include artwork and fancy typefaces to capture the reader's attention.
dissolve  Editing technique in which the visible image of one shot is gradually replaced with the image of another.
distance learning  Taking classes at locations other than a school facility, especially online.
docudramas  Fictional movies that dramatize real-life events.
documentary  A long-form recorded examination of a social problem or historical subject.
domain  The portion of an Internet address that identifies the network that handles the account.
domain name  The part of an Internet address selected and registered by an individual, business, or organization to represent their web presence.
DPI  Dots per inch; a measure of image resolution—the higher the number, the sharper the image.
DSL  Digital subscriber line, which carries data at high speeds over standard copper telephone wires.
dub  To re-record sound and/or visual material.
e-books  Books that exist as digital files.
e-commerce  The selling of goods and services online.
economies of scale  Savings that accrue with mass production.
editorial page  Section of newspaper reserved for opinion pieces.
electromagnetic spectrum  The range of frequencies that can be used for transmitting radio waves with electricity.
electronic news gathering (ENG)  Reporting that uses portable field equipment.
elite stage (of media development)  Phase of media evolution in which only the richest and best-educated members of the population make use of a particular medium.
embedded journalists  Nonmilitary reporters attached to a military unit.
emoticon  Text-based faces and objects in online messages that help give the reader a sense of the writer's feelings behind the text.
enlightened self-interest  Theory that holds that doing what is right for yourself will probably be right for others.
establishing shot  A long shot at the beginning of a scene that lets the audience know the location or time of the scene that follows.
ethics  The study of guidelines that help people determine right from wrong in their voluntary conduct.
ethnic press  That part of the newspaper industry aimed at particular cultural groups.
exclusive  A story granted to just one news outlet.
executive producer  The person who finds the financing for a film and puts the package together.
expressionism  An artistic style in which the artist attempts to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective e motions and responses that objects and events arouse in the artist's mind.
external publics  Public relations term for groups outside the client organization.
fair comment  Defense against a charge of libel based on opinion or criticism.
Fairness Doctrine  The rule repealed in 1987 by the FCC that required broadcasters to devote airtime to important controversial issues and to air contrasting views on those issues.
fair use  Doctrine that allows the copying of a portion of work for a noncommercial use.
feature news  Stories directed toward human interest and curiosity; also known as soft news.
feature syndicates  Brokers for newspaper entertainment and specialty items.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)  Government agency in charge of regulating all means of interstate telephone, radio, and television communication.
Federalist Papers  Essays that explained the new federal government to early Americans; published in 1788 as The Federalist.
Feedback  Messages that return from the receiver of a message to the source of that message.
First Amendment  The part of the U.S. Constitution's Bill of Rights that guarantees freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
fiber optics  Transmission lines made of thin glass fibers optimized to carry light waves. Optical fibers permit transmissions over longer distances and with less loss of information than do radio transmissions.
film noir  A genre of mostly black-and-white films with bleak subject matter, a somber tone, and low-key lighting that presents a dark atmosphere of pessimism or oppression. From the French meaning "black film."
firewall  Software or hardware that protects a private network or computer from the public.
first-run syndication  Original programs produced for distribution in syndication, as opposed to network or off- network series whose reruns pass into the syndication market.
first-sale doctrine  The doctrine that allows purchasers of a copyrighted work to resell it or rent it out.
flacks  Derogatory term for public relations professionals.
flaming  The act of posting or sending offensive messages over the Internet.
Flash  Software by Adobe that allows web developers to incorporate animations and interactive content into their websites.
flow theories  Explanations of the way effects travel from the mass media to their audiences.
focus groups  Small groups of potential consumers observed by a researcher.
Foley  The recording of custom sound effects during postproduction in the same way that dialog is dubbed.
format  Consistent programming formula with a recognizable sound and personality.
format clock  Graphic used by radio programmers showing each feature of the programming hour.
format wars  Rivalries in which companies selling specific types of recording and playback devices try to put competing companies with competing formats out of business.
Foursquare  Social networking website that allows mobile users to check in and update their location.
fourth estate  The press as an unofficial fourth branch of government.
frame  A single image on a piece of film. Films run at 24 frames per second.
framing  (1) The boundaries of an image that limit how much we see of it. (2) The context in which a news story is presented; for example, an economic report can be framed as good news or bad news.
freebies  Anything given away by public relations practitioners to promote a favorable relationship with media gatekeepers.
freelancer  A writer or producer not formally employed by any media organization, who is paid only for work accepted for publication or broadcast.
frequency modulation (FM)  Radio transmissions created by changing (modulating) the speed (frequency) at which sound waves are generated.
FTP  File transfer protocol, a common method of transferring files via the Internet from one computer to another.
full-service agencies  Ad agencies that supply all advertising and marketing services.
gaffer  Lighting director.
gag order  Judicial command not to speak about trial proceedings.
gatekeepers  Those who determine which messages will be delivered to media consumers.
gender studies  Research that looks at how the media deal with male and female roles.
general assignment reporters  Journalists who can find and write stories in any area.
genre  (1) Type of writing, such as romance or mystery. (2) A category of media texts characterized by a particular style, form, or content.
geostationary  The placement of satellites so that they orbit Earth at the same speed that Earth rotates, effectively parking the satellites over one spot.
golden mean  Aristotle's term for describing ethical behavior as a midpoint between extremes.
gramophone  Early playback device using a flat disc with lateral grooves cut on one side.
graphical user interface (GUI)  A set of browser features such as icons and hot spots that allow users to navigate websites easily.
greenwashing  The public relations practice of covering up environmental problems by associating a client with beneficial environmental actions.
group ownership  The acquisition of the same type of business in more than one market area by one company.
guerrilla advertising  Advertising that uses unorthodox tactics.
gutter journalism  A derogatory term for news organizations that use sensational reporting without concern for the harm it will do to society.
hacker  One who uses programming skills to gain illegal access to computer networks or files.
halftone image  A picture formed from a series of dots of various sizes to simulate shades of gray.
handbills  Announcements on single sheets of paper.
hard news  Stories about current events that have impact on people's lives.
hegemony  Theory that those in power maintain that power through cultural influence, often through means of mass media.
high-definition television (HDTV)  Digital technology for transmitting television programs using more than double the standard number of scanning lines, creating a clearer, larger picture.
high-fidelity (hi-fi) sound  Recorded sound true to the original.
hip-hop  The backing music for rap; also refers to the culture of rap.
hoaxes  Purposeful deceptions of the public.
horizontal integration  Corporate growth through the acquisition of different types of businesses.
hosts/servers  Internet computers that contain actual websites.
human interest story  A news story or feature that focuses on unusual and interesting aspects of people's lives that are not particularly significant to society as a whole; often used to make ideas more real and concrete in the minds of the viewer, reader, or listener.
hybrid search engines  Search engines that use both robots and human editors.
hype  Dramatic publicity techniques.
hypertext links (hyperlinks)  Highlighted words and images within a web page that allow the user to move to another site by pointing and clicking a mouse button.
hypertext markup language (HTML)  The basic computer language used to write hypertext transfer protocol (http).
hypertext transfer protocol (http)  The protocol that enables computers to recognize links on the World Wide Web.
ideology  A set of ideas that produces a selective and partial view of reality.
illiterates  Those who can't read because they never learned how.
image advertising  The promotion of an idea that becomes associated with a product.
importation  In cable television, the bringing in of additional signals from distant stations.
indecency  Offensive content with possible social value.
independent bookstores  Booksellers not owned by a chain and not part of a larger company.
independent films  Movies that are not made by one of the major studios.
independent label  Any recording industry company not owned by one of the major labels.
individual differences theory  Theory that predicts that people with different characteristics will be affected in different ways by the mass media.
infomercials  Program-length television commercials.
infotainment  Programming that combines information and entertainment, such as public service messages imbedded in sitcoms or entertaining stories as part of a news report.
in-house agencies  Organizations built into a corporate structure.
institutional ads  Trade group image promotions for entire industries.
integrated marketing  Public relations and advertising working together.
internal publics  Public relations term for groups inside the client's organization.
intertextuality  (1) The relationship between texts. (2) One text referring to another, as when characters in a television program talk about a novel or movie.
inverted pyramid  News style that packs the most important information into the first paragraph.
investigative journalism  Reporting that uncovers information that sources have tried to conceal.
IP address  Internet protocol address, a code that identifies a particular computer on the Internet.
ISBN  International Standard Book Number; a 13-digit or 10-digit code assigned to books published after 1972, printed over the bar code on the book's back cover. Each ISBN is unique to a specific book.
Java  An advanced programming language used for animated images and advanced sound applications.
jazz journalism  The prominent news style that followed yellow journalism and lasted from approximately 1919 to 1924, stressing tabloid sensationalism in both writing and photography.
joint operating agreement (JOA)  An agreement allowing competing newspapers to share business and printing facilities. Based on the Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970, JOAs exempted these papers from certain provisions of antitrust laws, to allow the survival of multiple daily newspapers in urban markets where circulation was declining.
JPEG  A type of still-image file ending in .jpg, which stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group.
jukebox  A coin-operated phonograph.
jump cut  An abrupt, disorienting transition in the middle of a continuous shot.
juxtaposition  Placing two images, characters, objects, or scenes in sequence, in order to compare, contrast, or establish a relationship between them.
key grip  Member of film crew who sets up and moves cameras.
kicker  (1) The first sentence or first few words of a story's intro, set in a larger font size than the body text. (2) A small headline in different type above and slightly to the left of the main headline. (3) A few words at the beginning of a caption to grab the reader's attention. (4) An ending that finishes a story or bulletin with a climax, surprise, or punch line.
kill fee  A reduced fee paid to a freelance writer for work that is not used.
kinescopes  Poor-quality films taken directly from television monitors in the network studios; they were forerunners of videotapes.
kinetograph  Early motion picture camera invented by Thomas Edison.
kinetoscope  Early motion picture projector invented by Thomas Edison.
laboratory experiment  Scientific method of isolating and observing variables in a controlled environment.
layout  (1) A plan of how stories, pictures, and other elements are to appear on the finished page of a newspaper or magazine, sometimes called a dummy. (2) A set of stories, pictures, and illustrations about a single subject.
LCD display  Liquid crystal display; a thin, flat screen that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
leaks  Unauthorized disclosures to the press.
LED display  Light-emitting diode display; miniature light bulbs that fit into an electrical circuit and are illuminated by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material.
leitmotif  An intentionally repeated, recurring element or theme associated with a particular idea in a film or story; the element presents itself as a repeated sound, shot, bit of dialog, piece of music, or so forth that helps unify a film by reminding the viewer of its earlier appearances.
letterboxing  A technique marked by black strips at the top and bottom of a screen image that allows for video or film shot at wide aspect ratios to be viewed on devices such as standard televisions that have squarer shapes.
libel  Published or broadcast defamation.
liberal bias  Point of view that is generally purported to be anti–big business, pro–big government, antireligion, and pro-Democrat.
line producers  People who lead the actual day-to-day work of making a film.
lines of resolution  Rows of pixels, or lighted dots, that make up a television picture image.
linking services  Online sites that connect the user to news sites.
listserv  Subscription-based, automated e-mail lists.
little magazines  Industry term for literary magazines with small circulations.
lobbying  Any attempt to influence the voting of legislators.
logo  A simple image including a name and/or symbol used to identify a product or company.
long tail marketing  Selling a large inventory of items to a few consumers each, rather than a limited inventory to large groups of consumers.
lyricist  A professional who specializes in writing the words of a song.
Machiavellian ethics  The idea that the end justifies the means.
market  All the surrounding areas from which business tends to flow to a central point, usually a major city.
mashup  Online participation in which users combine materials and add to the application as they use it.
mass communication  Mediated messages transmitted to large, widespread audiences.
massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs)  Games such as EverQuest that allow many players to join in over the Internet.
masthead  The name of a newspaper in a banner with special, distinctive type at the top of the front page.
media  Plural of medium.
media buyers  Advertising agency personnel who purchase ad time and space.
media circus  Chaos that results when crowds of journalists descend on the scene of a news event.
media criticism  The analysis used to assess the effects of media on individuals, on societies, and on cultures.
media ecology  School of cultural study that suggests that media make up an ecological system for humans.
media literacy  The ability to understand and make productive use of the media.
media relations  The practice of developing and maintaining contact with media gatekeepers; also called press relations.
mediated communication  Messages conveyed through an interposed device rather than face-to-face.
mediated interpersonal communication  The sharing of personal messages through an interposed device.
medium  An interposed device used to transmit messages.
megastores  Large bookstores that feature around 100,000 book titles and offer various amenities such as coffee bars and live readings.
meme  An idea, symbol, or practice that is widely imitated and repeated, often generated online. A viral video can create a meme such as "Charlie bit my finger."
mercantile press  Newspapers that provided news of business and shipping.
metacrawler  A type of search engine that combines results from a number of other search engines.
microblogging  Blogs with very short posts.
midlist authors  Authors who don't make it to the best-seller lists but still have respectable sales.
minimal-effects model  Model that predicts that media will have little influence on behavior.
mise en scène  All the elements placed by the director before the camera and within the frame of the film. From the French for "staging" or "putting into the scene."
mission statement  A brief explanation of how the magazine will be unique and what will make it successful.
mixed-effects model  Model that predicts that media can have a combination of influences.
MMS (multimedia message service)  Mobile phone text messaging that includes image, sound, or video.
moblogging  Posting photos from a cell phone directly onto the web.
modeling  The imitation of behavior from media.
modem  An electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from a computer via wires or cables. From the first letters of modulator/demodulator.
montage  The combination of pictorial elements from various sources in a single composition.
Morse code  Telegraph code of dots and dashes invented by Samuel Morse.
motif  A recurrent thematic element in literature or film.
Motion Picture Patents Company  Company founded by Thomas Edison to control the movie equipment business; known as the Trust.
Moviola  Simple editing machine made up of two reels on which film is spooled over a small light.
MPEG  Moving picture experts group; standards for digital video and audio.
MP3  The name for compressed digital audio files that enable music to be downloaded from the Internet.
muckraking  Investigative journalism conducted with the goal of bringing about social reform.
multiple system operators (MSOs)  Companies that own several local cable service providers, usually in different areas of the country.
multistep flow  A complex interaction of media effects.
must-carry rules  FCC regulations that require cable systems to carry all local television stations within the system's area of coverage.
myth  (1) Any invented story, idea, or concept. (2) Socially determined ideas that have gained the status of common sense.
narrative  The telling of a plot or story. In a media text, narrative is the coherent sequencing of events across time and space.
narrowcasting  Programs oriented toward specific demographic audiences or limited interest groups, rather than to the broadest possible mass audience.
netiquette  Online etiquette, or good manners.
network  (1) A group of interconnected broadcast stations that share programming. (2) The parent company that supplies that programming. (3) Interconnected computers. (4) To make industry contacts for possible employment.
network affiliate  A local station that has a contractual relationship to show a network's programming.
news  The presentation of information that is timely, important, and interesting to its audience.
news councils  Independent agencies whose mission is to objectively monitor media performance.
news hole  Total amount of space in a newspaper that can be devoted to editorial content versus advertising.
news hook  The angle or approach that makes information newsworthy.
news on demand  Current information that users can access whenever they want.
newsprint  Inexpensive paper used for newspapers.
newsreels  Short films covering current events that were shown in theaters before the advent of television.
news values  Characteristics that define news, including timeliness, importance, and interest.
nickelodeons  (1) Small early movie theaters. (2) Early jukeboxes set up in amusement arcades.
noise  Anything that interferes with the communication process.
nonlinear editing  The computer-assisted editing of video without the need to assemble it first in linear sequence.
objectivity  Writing style that separates fact from opinion; description according to the characteristics of the thing being described rather than the feelings of the one describing it.
obscenity  Offensive content with no social value.
off-network programs  Syndicated programs that were shown earlier on one of the television networks and are now being licensed on a station-by-station basis.
offset printing  Printing technology in which image areas on plates attract ink and nonimage areas attract water.
off the record  Information given to a journalist as background on condition that it will not be used in a story.
ombudsperson  Staff member whose job it is to oversee media employees' ethical behavior.
online publisher  One that provides "supported self publishing" through a website.
on spec  On speculation; in the publishing industry, finishing a work without a contract guaranteeing that it will be bought.
op-ed page  The section of the newspaper "opposite the editorial page" reserved for signed columns, opinion pieces, and guest editorials.
open-source software  Computer software that is available in a form that allows others to modify and improve it. Linux, for example, is an open-source operating system.
opinion leaders  Well-informed people who help others interpret media messages.
optical fiber  A thin, flexible, transparent fiber, often made of glass, that uses light to carry large amounts of information at great speed.
oral culture  A culture in which information is transmitted more by speech than by writing.
organizational papers  Newspapers published as part of an organization's communication with members.
original syndication  The station-by-station licensing of new television programs that were not earlier shown on a network.
overnights  Television ratings provided to clients the morning following a telecast.
owned and operated stations (O&Os)  Broadcast stations possessed by and run by the network; they usually carry everything the network provides.
packet switching  Sending digital messages in chunks through any open pathway, to be reassembled at their destination.
page views  The number of times a web page has been successfully served to users' browsers.
paid circulation magazines  Magazines for which readers actually pay subscription fees and newsstand charges.
pan  (1) To express a totally negative opinion of a film or other media product. (2) An abbreviation for panorama shot, which is a rotation of the camera from right to left while filming.
papyrus  A type of reed used to make an early form of paper.
parchment  An early form of paper made from animal skins.
parity statement  An assertion of equality that sounds like an assertion of superiority.
partisan press  Newspapers owned or supported by political parties.
pass-along circulation  Readership beyond the original purchaser of a publication.
patent  An exclusive right granted an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell an invention.
payola  A practice in which record companies paid radio station personnel to play certain records.
pay-per-view channels  Systems that allow cable TV subscribers to order recent feature films, sporting events, concerts, and other special events when scheduled.
PDF  Portable document format; document format created with Adobe Acrobat.
peep shows  Amusement parlor boxes containing moving rolls of still pictures.
P2P  Peer to peer, or sharing files from one computer to another, without the need of a central server.
peg  An angle, or perspective, that makes information interesting to the audience.
penny press  Inexpensive, advertiser-supported newspapers that appeared in the 1830s.
persistence of vision  An aspect of human vision in which the brain retains images for a fraction of a second after they leave the field of sight; this allows for the illusion of movement from a series of still pictures.
phishing  Sending fake e-mails to get victims to reveal sensitive information.
phonograph  Thomas Edison's name for his first recording device. Originally a trademark, the name eventually became generic for all home record players.
photo-offset printing  Technique in which a photo negative transfers ink onto paper.
pirate radio stations  Low-power, unlicensed, illegal stations.
pirating  The illegal copying and selling of movies.
pitching accounts  Presenting new ideas for ad campaigns to a prospective client.
pixels  The colored dots that make up a video image. Each pixel is a single unit of screen information.
podcasts  Digital audio files available on a broadcaster's website for download by listeners.
political/economic analysis  Theory that predicts that a culture's exchange system will influence its values.
political speech  Messages about the meaning and correct course of government.
pool cameras  One camera crew shared by several TV news organizations.
popular stage (of media development)  Phase of media evolution in which a truly mass audience takes advantage of a particular medium.
portals  Sites from which users begin their web surfing.
positioning  The process of finding specific customer types and creating advertising appeals for them.
postmodernism  A term used by many theorists in many ways, but most agree that it is a rejection of the dogma, principles, or practices of established modernism. Postmodernism emerged as a movement in the 1960s as a revolt against elitism; it challenges the hostility to mass culture on which modernism had been built.
postproduction  The final phase of moviemaking, which includes editing and other technical improvements to the film.
POV  Point of view; the perspective from which a story, especially a film story, is told.
powerful-effects model  Model that predicts that media will have swift and potent influence.
premium cable channels  Cable channels that provide programming to subscribers for an additional fee, over and above their basic cable subscription fee; sometimes called pay cable.
preproduction  The planning phase of moviemaking.
prescriptive codes  Guidelines that stipulate specific behaviors to be followed.
press agents  People who work to generate publicity for a client.
press kit  A collection of publicity items given out to media gatekeepers.
press release  Brief document containing the information needed to write a news story; also called a news release.
prior restraint  Prevention of publication by the government.
privilege  Exemption given public officials to speak without fear of being sued for libel.
producer  In the music industry, the person who oversees the making of a master recording.
production  The actual shooting phase of moviemaking.
production value  One measure of the overall quality of a film, based not on the script, acting, or director but on criteria such as costumes, sets, and design.
product placement  The inclusion of a product in a movie as a form of paid advertising.
professional journals  Periodicals that doctors, lawyers, engineers, and other occupational groups rely on for information in their fields.
program syndication  The sale of programs directly to stations or cable channels.
prologue  An introduction preceding the main action of a story or plot of a film.
propaganda  Information that is spread for the purpose of promoting a doctrine or cause.
props  Abbreviation for properties, the handheld objects, the decorations, or any other movable items that are used on a film or stage set.
proscriptive codes  Guidelines that stress the things that should not be done.
protocols  Software codes that enable one computer to communicate with another.
pseudo events  Happenings that would not have occurred if media were not there to record them.
psychographics  Measurements of audience characteristics that are difficult to observe and label, such as the psychological (and sometimes hidden) dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, values, interests, and motivations.
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)  Government-sponsored association of public television stations designed to facilitate the sharing of programs.
public domain  The category of creative works on which the copyright has expired.
publicity stunt  Any action designed to create a human interest story; many are outlandish or outrageous.
"public interest, convenience, and necessity"  A phrase from the Radio Act of 1927 requiring that broadcasting be good for the community.
public journalism  Reporting that becomes involved in, rather than just covers, community issues.
public radio  Broadcast outlets that derive their income from sources other than the sale of advertising time; also known as noncommercial.
public relations  All the activities that maintain a beneficial relationship between an organization and its various publics.
public relations magazines  Magazines produced with the objective of making their parent organizations look good.
public service announcement (PSA)  Any message carried by a station, network, or cable provider, free of charge, for its informational service to the viewer.
publisher  In print industries, the person who runs an individual company and acts as its chief representative.
puffery  Exaggeration in advertising claims.
Pulitzer Prize  America's highest literary and journalism award, administered by Columbia University.
pull quote  A brief but significant excerpt from a written work, highlighted in a different typeface next to the main text or in gaps within a column.
pulp novels  Paperback books printed on cheap paper made from wood pulp; another name for dime novels.
pulps  Magazines produced on cheap paper with a low cultural reach, such as True Romance and True Confessions.
qualitative research  Studies that collect nonnumerical data, such as critical analyses and close readings.
quantitative research  Studies that collect numerical data.
rag content  Proportion of cotton or linen fiber in high quality paper.
ragtime  Instrumental music with a steady, syncopated beat.
random sampling  Method that ensures that every member of the population being studied has an equal chance of being chosen.
rap  Music composed of rhymed speech over drumbeats.
rate card  A published list of a media organization's standard charges for advertising.
rating  The percentage of all homes equipped with radios or televisions that are tuned to a particular station at a particular time.
realism  (1) Storytelling that imitates real life. (2) In film, representing the reality outside the camera with as little distortion and interference as possible, attained by long, uninterrupted takes, such as in docudramas.
recto  The right-hand page of a newspaper, magazine, or book.
regional editions  Slightly different versions of the same magazine produced for different geographic areas.
relativistic ethics  Another name for situation ethics.
reporting stations  The radio stations whose playlists are tracked weekly to determine airplay popularity for individual songs.
required readers  Those who read only what they have to for their job or studies.
residual news  Stories about events that are recurrent or long-lasting.
residuals  Fees paid to performers and other creative talent for subsequent exposures of their filmed or video programs or commercials.
roman à clef  A work of fiction in which actual persons/events are disguised or masked as fictional characters. From the French meaning "novel with a key."
rough cut  An early edited version of a film, before the finished version is assembled.
royalties  The share of a work's revenues paid to the owner of a right, such as an author, composer, or performer.
sampling  Measurements taken from a small percentage of the audience, chosen to represent the behavior of the entire audience; broadcast ratings are a form of sampling.
satellite news gathering (SNG)  Reporting the news with equipment that enables transmission via satellite.
screener  A promotional DVD of a film that is sent to voters during the awards season.
second unit directors  Movie directors in charge of shooting the scenes that do not require the stars.
seditious libel laws  Laws established in colonial America that made it illegal to criticize government or its representatives.
selective exposure  Process by which people seek out messages that are consistent with their attitudes.
selective perception  Process by which people with different attitudes interpret the same messages differently.
selective retention  Process by which people with different views remember the same event differently.
semiotics  The study of signs and symbols as elements of communication.
sensationalism  Use of exaggeration and lurid elements to produce a startling effect.
SEO  Search engine optimization; techniques for making a website appear in the top listings of search engines.
sepia tone  A black-and-white image that has been converted to a brownish gray to create an antique appearance.
sequestering  Isolating members of a jury.
servers  Internet computers that contain websites that can be accessed by users.
share  The percentage of homes in which the radio or television is in use and tuned to a particular station.
shield laws  Laws designed to ensure confidentiality of news sources.
shock jocks  Radio personalities who derive humor and ratings from lewd and tasteless comments, using tactics such as vulgarity, racism, sexism, and cynicism.
shoppers  Free-distribution newspapers consisting mostly of ads.
short wave  Long-distance radio broadcast band.
situation ethics  Principle that ethical choices can be made according to the situation, without a rigid adherence to set rules.
slander  Defamation that occurs in a transitory form, such as speech.
small press  A publisher with few employees and minimal facilities. Many small presses try to publish serious books, especially poetry and avant-garde fiction.
smart mobs  Crowds formed in response to cell phone postings.
SMS (short message service)  Mobile phone text messaging.
soap opera  A serialized drama, usually dealing with domestic themes and characterized by sentimentality, broadcast on radio or television; a daytime melodrama.
socialization  Process by which children learn the expectations, norms, and values of society.
social learning theory  Theory that people learn by observing others.
soft focus  A photographic technique in which a filter or Vaseline is placed over the camera lens to reduce the sharpness of focus; often used to enhance romantic scenes or to hide wrinkle lines on an actor's face.
sound bites  Short, carefully crafted statements designed to be picked up in news reports.
Soundscan  A point-of-sale computer system that determines sales for best-selling records lists.
spaghetti western  A low-budget cowboy movie filmed in Italy (or Spain) during the 60s, usually characterized by low production values and sparse dialog.
spam  Unsolicited e-mail messages.
special effects  The creation of extraordinary visual and audio illusions. Includes digital effects, miniatures/models, stop- motion animation, bluescreens, animatronics (electronic puppets), and rain/snow/wind machines. Abbreviated as F/X, SFX, SPFX, and EFX.
special interest magazines  Magazines aimed at specific readers with specific concerns and tastes.
specialized stage (of media development)  Phase of media evolution in which a particular medium tends to break up into segments for audience members with diverse and specialized interests.
spectrum scarcity  Limited nature of broadcast frequencies.
spin  To provide an interpretation of an event or campaign to persuade the public to be in favor of or against a certain organization or public figure.
split-run editions  Slightly different versions of the same magazine, as in demographic and regional editions.
sponsored magazines  Magazines published by associations, such as National Geographic.
spoofing  Deceiving computer systems or other computer users, typically by hiding one's identity or faking the identity of another user.
spyware  Programs that track Internet users' activities and report them back to advertisers.
standards and practices departments  Departments at television networks that oversee the ethics of their programming.
stereophonic sound  Recording technique in which tracks are placed individually in the right or left speaker.
stereotyping  Representing a member of a group by using oversimplified characteristics.
storyboard  A series of sketches of the frames of an event, with the corresponding audio information and shot list.
streaming  Sending live video and audio over online applications.
stringers  Independent journalists who are paid only for material used.
strip programming  A system of showing a program in the same time period five times a week.
structuralism  The study of media based on its oppositions, contrasts, and hierarchical structures, especially as they might reflect universal organizing principles.
subliminal advertising  Promotional messages of which the consumer is not consciously aware.
subscription fulfillment companies  Businesses that specialize in soliciting magazine subscriptions.
subtext  The deeper and usually unexpressed "real" meanings of a character's spoken lines or of any other media content.
sunshine laws  Laws that ensure that public meetings are conducted in the open.
superstation  A local station whose signal is delivered to cable systems via satellite.
surrealism  The representation of a distorted or fantastic dream state that goes beyond realism.
survey methods  Research methods that rely on questionnaires to collect research data.
sustaining programming  Regular unsponsored broadcast shows designed to maintain audience contact until advertising can be sold for that time.
sweeps months  Months in which local stations use the ratings to set their basic advertising rates for the next three month period—currently, November, February, May, and July.
syndication  The process of selling media content to individual outlets.
synergy  A combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
tabloids  Newspapers characterized by a smaller size than a standard newspaper, a single fold, and abundant photographs.
tagging  Assigning a keyword or term to online content that allows it to be found by browsing or searching.
target marketing  The process of breaking up the advertising audience into diverse segments to reach those individuals most likely to purchase a particular product.
TCP/IP  Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol, a set of rules that establishes the method with which data are transmitted over the Internet between two computers.
technological determinism  Theory that states that the introduction of new technology changes society, sometimes in unexpected ways.
teleconference  A news conference in which newsmakers and reporters in various locations are joined by a satellite or an Internet hookup; also called a videoconference or a satellite media tour (SMT).
teleprompter  A device that projects a prepared script, unseen by the audience, for a speaker. In newscasts, the projected script appears in front of the camera lens, so the anchor appears to be looking directly at the audience.
text  (1) The actual wording of anything written or printed. (2) A textbook. (3) Anything considered to be a subject for analysis by critics, especially in cultural criticism.
theory  A set of related statements that seek to explain and predict behavior.
third person effect  The belief that media affects other people more than oneself.
tie-ins  Consumer products built around movie characters.
time shifting  Recording of a television program for playback at some later time.
Tin Pan Alley  District in New York City where songs were written "on order" for Broadway shows.
toll broadcasting  Early plan for radio revenue in which access to radio time would be by fee.
Top 40  Radio format in which the current 40 best-selling songs are played in rotation.
track  A single recorded sound source, used in multitrack recording.
trade advertising  Business-to-business promotions.
trade books  Fiction and nonfiction books sold to the general public.
trade cards  Illustrated cards with a business message on one side and artwork on the other.
trade magazines  Magazines that focus on a particular business and are usually essential reading for people in that business.
trademark  A word, symbol, or device that identifies a seller's goods.
trade paperback  A quality paperback book with a larger trim size than the standard mass-market paperback.
trailers  Brief previews of coming movies shown in theaters.
transistor  A durable, solid-state, miniature version of the large and fragile vacuum tubes used in early radios.
treatment  A detailed summary of a film's story, with action and characters described in prose form.
trial balloons  Leaks in which the source reveals that some action is being considered, in order to test public feeling about the action before going ahead with it.
trim size  The dimensions of the pages of a printed book, magazine, or newspaper.
turnkey networks  Companies that provide fully automated around-the-clock programming for radio stations.
tweeters  Small speakers that reproduce high sounds.
Twitter bomb  Flooding Twitter with multiple tweets from multiple user accounts so that anyone searching Twitter will come across that message; from the earlier Google bomb.
two-source rule  Common newspaper rule stating that nothing should be published as fact unless at least two sources confirm it.
two-step flow  Communication process in which media effects travel through opinion leaders.
UHF (ultra high frequency)  That part of the spectrum used by television channels 14 through 83.
underground press  Alternative newspapers of the 1960s and 1970s that passionately criticized cultural and political norms.
uniform resource locator (URL)  An Internet address that connects the user to a website on a particular computer.
university press  A publisher that is affiliated with an institution of higher education and that publishes mostly academic books, especially original research by college professors.
upfront  The first selling wave for the broadcast or cable TV networks.
user ID  The first part of an e-mail address.
uses and gratifications theory  Theory that looks at the ways media consumers choose media to meet their needs.
utilitarian principle  John Stuart Mill's idea that actions are ethical only if they result in the greatest good for the most people.
vanity press  A publisher that requires its authors to pay the full cost of producing their own books.
V-chip  An electronic device that can be set to recognize and block programs with a particular rating.
veil of ignorance  John Rawls's term associated with the idea that ethical behavior is possible only if everyone is treated equally.
verso  The left-hand page of a newspaper, magazine, or book.
vertical integration  A business model in which a company owns different parts of the same industry.
VHF (very high frequency)  That part of the spectrum used by television channels 2 through 13.
Victrola  Early hand-cranked record player introduced by the Victor Company.
videocassette recorder (VCR)  An improvement on the videotape recorder (VTR), it uses cassette tapes instead of reels.
video compression  Digital technology that compresses video and audio transmissions so that more data can be transmitted. This allows for expansion of broadcast, cable, and satellite channels.
video news release (VNR)  A ready-to-broadcast videotape designed for use in television news.
video on demand (VOD)  Services that allow subscribers to order recent feature films, sporting events, concerts, news items, and special events at any time; television clips that users can access whenever they want.
videotape recorder (VTR)  A device for recording sounds and images on reels of magnetic tape.
videotext  An experimental system for delivering electronic newspapers to homes via television sets.
viral marketing  Techniques that use preexisting social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or sales, by getting people to pass on video clips, games, or word of mouth to others.
virus  A program designed specifically to damage other software, and to propagate itself to other computers.
VoIP  Voice over Internet protocol; a telephone connection over the Internet, often pronounced "voip."
Web 2.0  The idea of a second-generation Internet that is highly participatory, allowing users to improve it as they use it.
weblogs  Online journals or diaries; called blogs for short.
webmasters  Those who maintain either content or systems for large websites.
webzines  Magazines that appear only on the Internet, such as Slate and Salon; also called e-zines.
whitewashing  The practice of using public relations messages to cover up problems without correcting them.
wiki  A website that allows users to add and update content on the site.
wireless telegraphy  Name for early radio transmissions, before human voices could be carried on the airwaves.
woofers  Large speakers that reproduce low sounds.
World Wide Web  A simplified means of navigating the Internet based on hypertext links and graphical user interfaces.
W3C  World Wide Web Consortium; an international community that develops standards for the World Wide Web by publishing relevant protocols and guidelines.
yellow journalism  A style of reporting characterized by unprecedented sensationalism; it reached its peak in the Hearst– Pulitzer circulation wars of the 1890s.
zapping  Changing the TV channel by remote control to avoid a commercial.
zines  Low-cost self-published magazines put out by fans on a variety of topics; also called fanzines.
zipping  Similar to zapping; fast-forwarding through commercials when playing back a program on a video recorder.







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