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Physical Geography: Weather and Climate

Multiple Choice Quiz



1

The dew point is the:
A)critical temperature required for condensation to take place
B)development of cirrus clouds during the winter season
C)elevation of the earth's surface when the lapse rate reaches 0°C
D)relative humidity in mid-latitude climates
2

Air pressure is greater:
A)at the earth's surface
B)in the upper atmosphere
C)when a column of mercury can be balanced at a height of 76 centimeters
D)when the air is warmer
3

What term refers to energy being absorbed by the earth then returned to the atmosphere?
A)reflection
B)temperature inversion
C)insolation
D)reradiation
4

Which of the following descriptions of air temperature from the ground up best depicts the existence of an inversion layer?
A)cool, cooler, cold
B)cool, warm, cool
C)warm, cool, cooler
D)warm, cool, warm
5

Which of the following statements concerning a cyclonic storm is not correct?
A)It can be of either weak or strong intensity.
B)It is a large system of air circulation centered on a region of low atmospheric pressure.
C)The probability of cyclonic storms increases with increases in contrast of temperature and humidity between two air masses.
D)In the Northern Hemisphere the winds move in a clockwise direction around the area of low pressure.
6

Jet streams are:
A)cold surface ocean currents
B)more pronounced in the summer than in the winter
C)responsible for the North Atlantic Drift
D)upper air wind systems of rapidly moving air
7

According to the normal lapse rate, the difference in temperature between a location at 500 meters at 10°C and an elevation of 3000 meters would be:
A)7.0°C
B)10.5°C
C)16.0°C
D)22.0°C
8

Most of the United States lies within which belt of wind usually moves across the country from southwest to northeast?
A)equatorial trough of low pressure
B)mid-latitude westerlies
C)northeast trades
D)subtropical highs
9

Surface ocean currents are set in motion by:
A)density of the water
B)global wind direction patterns
C)topography of the ocean bottom
D)depth of the ocean
10

The two most fundamental factors concerning solar insolation are:
A)angle of the sun's rays and degree of cloud cover
B)angle of the sun's rays and number of daylight hours
C)elevation above sea level and number of daylight hours
D)elevation above sea level and degree of cloud cover
11

On June 21, the sun is vertically overhead at:
A)the equator
B)the poles
C)23.5° North
D)23.5° South
12

In order to equalize air pressure imbalances, air moves from:
A)high pressure to high pressure
B)high pressure to low pressure
C)low pressure to low pressure
D)low pressure to high pressure
13

Which continent does not have a humid continental climate region?
A)North America
B)Europe
C)Australia
D)Asia
14

The wind system which most strongly affects the climate of that portion of the earth's surface between the equator and 23.5° North latitude is the:
A)northeast trades
B)polar easterlies
C)prevailing westerlies
D)southeast trades
15

When the distance between areas of high and low pressure are short, then:
A)orographic precipitation occurs
B)solar radiation receipt is diminished
C)temperature inversions occur
D)wind velocities are great
16

Mountain and valley breezes are caused by:
A)forest fires
B)differential heating and cooling
C)high temperatures ranges
D)temperature inversions
17

Wind movements in the Northern Hemisphere tend to be deflected in what direction?
A)north
B)south
C)left
D)right
18

The two most important elements that differentiate weather conditions are:
A)air pressure and precipitation
B)air pressure and temperature
C)precipitation and seasonal changes
D)temperature and precipitation
19

The vegetation native to Mediterranean climates is characterized by:
A)deciduous trees such as maple, elm, and sycamore
B)shrubs and small deciduous trees like the scrub oak
C)cacti
D)tundra
20

On a clear, cloudless night the reradiation process causes:
A)rainfall, and perhaps a severe thunderstorm
B)the earth to store more energy
C)humidity to increase
D)temperatures to decrease
21

Of the following responses, solar energy is most effectively stored in:
A)large continental land masses
B)large bodies of water
C)mountainous regions
D)desert climates
22

Coastal deserts are usually the result of:
A)warm ocean currents
B)orographic precipitation
C)cold ocean currents
D)subtropical high pressure
23

Which statement is not true about global warming?
A)The 20th century was the warmest century of the past 600 years.
B)The rate of glacial melt has accelerated in the past few decades.
C)Scientists now have the tools to predict the local and regional consequences of global warming.
D)Global warming will alter temperature and precipitation patterns.
24

Which statement about air pressure is correct?
A)The greater the differences in air pressure between places, the greater the wind.
B)Air pressure is lowest closer to the earth's surface.
C)High temperatures are associated with high air pressure.
D)If distances between high- and low-pressure zones are short, wind velocities diminish.
25

Which statement is true about land and sea breezes?
A)During the day, warm air over the land replaces cooler air over the sea.
B)During the day, cool air over the water replaces warm air over the land.
C)During the night, cool air over the water replaces warm air over the land.
D)During the night, warm air over the land replaces cool air over the water.
26

In what region of the world are tropical cyclones called typhoons?
A)Caribbean Sea
B)Atlantic Ocean
C)Indian Ocean
D)western Pacific Ocean
27

Rather than flowing in a straight line from the polar region to the equator, winds are deflected due to the:
A)Coriolis effect
B)earth's topography
C)frictional effect
D)gravity
28

Which statement is not true about continental environments?
A)Continental environments are areas not affected by nearby water.
B)Continental environments are more likely to experience a more moderate range of temperatures than marine environments.
C)Continental environments are more likely to have warmer summers than marine environments.
D)Continental environments are a result of land heating and cooling more rapidly than water.
29

Which of the following is not considered a natural factor in short-term climatic change?
A)volcanic eruptions
B)sunspot activity
C)earth's orbital shape
D)oceanic circulation
30

The lowest layer of the earth's atmosphere, which contains virtually all of the air, clouds, and precipitation of the earth is the:
A)mesosphere
B)stratosphere
C)troposphere
D)exosphere
31

What type of precipitation results in a rainshadow region of dry conditions?
A)orographic
B)convectional
C)cyclonic
D)frontal
32

Which statement is not true about the greenhouse effect?
A)The greenhouse effect began with the Industrial Revolution.
B)Carbon dioxoide is the primary greenhouse gas.
C)The greenhouse effect slows down reradiation back into space.
D)Deforestation adds to the greenhouse effect.
33

On the summer solstice for the northern hemisphere, the sun is directly above the:
A)Tropic of Cancer
B)Tropic of Capricorn
C)Arctic Circle
D)Antarctic Circle
34

On December 21, when the sun is directly above the Tropic of Capricorn, the sun never sets at latitudes south of the:
A)Tropic of Cancer
B)Tropic of Capricorn
C)Arctic Circle
D)Antarctic Circle
35

High pressure air masses are:
A)heavy and warm
B)heavy and cold
C)light and warm
D)light and cold
36

The seasonal wind that reverses direction during the year leading to dry and rainy seasons is:
A)monsoon
B)neap
C)trade
D)westerlies
37

Air that contains so much water vapor that the vapor condenses (changes from a gas to a liquid), is said to be:
A)fluvial
B)supersaturated
C)waterlogged
D)humidified
38

The anvil-head cloud that often accompanies heavy rain is what type of cloud?
A)altostratus
B)cirrocumulus
C)cumulonimbus
D)nimbostratus
39

The percentage measure of the moisture content of the air is expressed by the:
A)ph balance
B)proportional dew point
C)relative humidity
D)atmosphere taxonomy
40

The smallest and most violent of all storms is the:
A)blizzard
B)typhoon
C)cyclone
D)tornado
41

The best known climate classification scheme, based on natural vegetation in addition to temperature and precipitation criteria, is the:
A)climatic categorization
B)köppen classification
C)ritter catalog
D)atmosphere taxonomy
42

On a climagraph, a u-shaped temperature line (one that dips in the middle) indicates that the location of the climagraph station is:
A)north
B)south
C)east
D)west
43

Which climate region experiences dry summers and frontal precipitation in the winter, and is characterized by chaparral vegetation?
A)Mediterranean
B)tropical rainforest
C)humid continental
D)subarctic
44

What term is used to describe the northern boundary zone beyond the treed subarctic regions?
A)savanna
B)steppe
C)semidesert
D)tundra
45

Which of the following has not been suggested by scientists as an explanation of long-term climatic change?
A)the changing shape of the earth's orbit around the sun
B)the varying tilt of the earth's axis relative to the sun
C)the changing distance of the earth in its revolution around the sun
D)the gyration of the earth's rotation axis