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True or False Quiz
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1
According to ethical relativism, there is no right or wrong except in terms of what a particular culture or society practices or what a person's feelings about an issue are. Values such as equality, fairness, integrity, self-respect, and freedom from coercion are simply a matter of personal or social opinion.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
2
Mathematics, the more theoretical side of physics, engineering and chemistry, and all ethical judgments based on careful logical analysis and reasoning provide us with conclusions that are absolutely certain and beyond doubt.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
3
Because utilitarianism focuses on consequences, producing the greatest happiness for the greatest number, as the sole criterion for determining ethical right and wrong, no action is ever right or wrong in itself, in all cases, in every situation—even, perhaps, murder, rape, theft, deceit and lying.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
4
Deontological ethics refers to the concept that certain duties: obligations, commitments, and responsibilities, not consequences, determine the correct path to ethical decision-making.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
5
Deontological ethics might allow the sacrifice of individual rights if the overall good demanded it.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
6
According to Kant, any action's maxim that cannot be universalized is ethically wrong and should not be performed.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
7
One way to understand rights is to identify them with a person's wants. Rights protect these wants even though, objectively, they may conflict with what is really good for a person.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
8
The theory of virtue ethics focuses on a full and detailed description of those character traits that would constitute a good and human life. Egoism is simply not a factor in the ethical decision-making of caring, empathetic, charitable, and sympathetic persons.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
9
The condition of plenty or surplus and competition allow everyone to get what they want; this is a condition of free market capitalism.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
10
There is a consensus among utilitarians on how to measure and determine the overall good.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
11
Historically, utilitarians place a very high value on individual freedom of choice, even though free individuals do not always choose what is good for them.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
12
According to deontological ethics, individuals possess certain basic rights that should not be violated even if doing so would increase the overall good or social happiness.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
13
A version of utilitarian ethics invoking the tradition of Adam Smith claims that competitive markets are the best means for attaining utilitarian goals. This is "market" utilitarianism.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
14
Unlike utilitarians, policy makers are not concerned with the well-being of the whole community.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
15
Rights and duties are not correlated. Duties are what I owe others. Rights are claims I make against others.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
16
Rights are sometimes described as "trumps" that override the collective will. Rights function to protect certain interests that are more important and central in human well-being than the mere happiness of others.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
17
Virtue ethics remind us to examine how character traits are formed and conditioned.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
18
Cultural relativism offers a factual description of different cultures and societies.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
19
A trap of relativism involves confusing the fact that there is wide disagreement about values, with the conclusion that no agreement is possible.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
20
Kantian ethics argues that we are acting morally only when we act out of a universal good will.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
21
Utilitarianism and consequentialism is the same thing.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
22
Jeremy Bentham argued that the absence of pain only is intrinsically valuable.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
23
According to J. S. Mill, people need to be educated and experienced in a variety of pleasures before they are competent to judge.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE
24
Free market capitalism's roots are in ethical relativism.
A)TRUE
B)FALSE







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