Select the correct answer to the following multiple-choice questions by circling the appropriate letter.
Despite the fact that multiple studies show that advertising is effective and does impact the decision making of a large percentage of people, polls indicate that the majority of people believe they are basically immune to the influences of ads. This indicates that at least some of these people are guilty of
When a statement has no pertinence to the subject at issue it is said to be
|A)||an unwarranted assumption.|
Despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, many teen girls believe that they cannot or will not become pregnant after engaging in unprotected sex for the first time. They believe this primarily because they would prefer that it were true. In such cases, these teens are guilty of
|C)||the herd instinct.|
The experiment conducted by Solomon Asch, in which almost a third of college students who were faced with the unanimous opposition of their peers refused to believe their own eyes and gave answers that were obviously false, illustrates the distorting influence of
Many politicians oppose any legislation that would limit how much of their personal money they could use to fund their own campaigns. At least some of these politicians hold this perspective only because they are very wealthy and such law would effectively remove any advantage this wealth would bring them. Such politicians likely hold their view as a result of
|B)||an unfounded assumption.|
Read the following argument carefully and then answer the question below: Pain is pain wherever it occurs. If your neighbor's causing you pain is wrong because of the pain that is caused, we cannot rationally ignore or dismiss the moral relevance of the pain your dog feels.
In the argument you just read, the author claims that if someone believes that causing pain to a neighbor is wrong because of the pain that is caused, yet does not agree that causing pain to an animal is wrong on the same grounds, that person is guilty of
|A)||a practical inconsistency|
|C)||a logical inconsistency|
Which of the following is not one of the intellectual traits of critical thinkers discussed in the text.
|A)||Critical thinkers love truth and are curious about a wide range of issues.|
|B)||Critical thinkers are intellectually honest with themselves, acknowledging what they don't know and recognizing their limitations.|
|C)||Critical thinkers never back down from a good argument, pursuing victory in every dispute they are engaged in.|
|D)||Critical thinkers are aware of the biases and preconceptions that shape the way they perceive the world.|
According to the text, which of the following is not true about assumptions?
|A)||The practice of thinking critically demands that we become aware of our own thinking, including our assumptions.|
|B)||Unwarranted assumptions are unreasonable.|
|C)||Some assumptions are reasonable.|
|D)||It is both possible and beneficial to uncover every assumption that informs our thinking.|
Which of the conclusions below does not logically follow from the following passage: The right to life is the most basic human right, the one on which all other rights depend. Thus, regardless of the nobility of our ends, human beings should never be intentionally killed by the state.
|A)||Since convicted murderers are humans, they should never be executed.|
|B)||The death penalty constitutes a violation of the executed prisoner's right to life.|
|C)||Even if the death penalty leads to a safer society by deterring would-be criminals, capital punishment should nonetheless be abolished.|
|D)||If executions of criminals ultimately leads to less killing in society, then the death penalty should be endorsed.|
According to the text, is the standard of critical thinking that demands we ask such questions as, What exactly is the problem we're facing? What exactly are the alternatives? What exactly are the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative?