Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by .
is the decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
An unconditioned response and a conditioned response are similar; but the unconditioned response occurs naturally, whereas the conditioned response is .
occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears.
The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response with no further conditioning after a period of rest is called .
occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not.
When a conditioned response follows a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus, it is called .
is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences.
is the process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated.
A satisfies some biological need and works naturally, regardless of the subject's prior experience.
A(n) is a stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response, while a(n) refers to an unpleasant stimulus whose removal from the environment leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will occur again in the future.
Punishment by of a negative stimulus decreases or reduces the frequency of behavior, while punishment by of a positive stimulus also decreases the frequency of behavior.
Although learning occurs more rapidly under a(n) reinforcement schedule, behavior lasts longer after reinforcement stops when it is learned under a(n) reinforcement schedule.
In , you start by reinforcing any behavior that is at all similar to the behavior you want the person to learn. Later, you reinforce only responses that are closer to the behavior you ultimately want to teach. Finally, you reinforce only the desired response.
is a formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.
Cognitive learning theory suggests that it is not sufficient to say that people make responses because there is an assumed link between a stimulus and a response due to a past history of reinforcement for that response. Proponents of this theory view learning in terms of the thought processes that underlie it, which are called .
In , a new behavior is learned but not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it.
People develop of their surroundings that enable them to envision where they are going and figure out a new route if their normal path is blocked.
is learning by watching the behavior of another person or model.
Characteristic ways of approaching material based on both cultural background and personal, unique patterns of abilities is referred to as .
People with a(n) do best when they can carry out an initial analysis of the principles and components underlying a phenomenon or situation.